Patriot Major Components
1. Phased array radar. It's beam is electronically aimed at a different piece of the sky every few microseconds. No moving parts. Extremely difficult to jam.
2. Engagement Control Station (ECS). Where the computer and the operators fight the air battle. Man-machine interaction options here can range from letting the computer assist in target identification and prioritization to leaving the ECS and letting the computer fight the entire air battle itself.
3. 6 to 8 missile launchers. Missiles come factory packed in containers which are loaded directly onto the launcher. The Launcher can be located up to 1 kilometer away from the ECS/Radar, receiving commands automatically via microwave data link.
4. Patriot missile. Achieves supersonic speed within 20ft of leaving the launcher. Range: 100+ km. It can outmaneuver any manned aircraft and most missiles. It is controlled in flight automatically by the computer.
Patriot-unique equipment at the Headquarters and Headquarters Battery (HHB) includes the information and coordination central (ICC), communications relay groups (CRGs), antenna mast groups (AMGs), trailer mounted electric power units (EPUs), and guided missile transporters (GMT). The Patriot firing battery equipment includes the AMG, radar set (RS), engagement control station (ECS), truck mounted electric power plant (EPP), and up to sixteen launching stations (LSs). Both the battalion and firing batteries are equipped with a semitrailer maintenance center.
(1) The ICC is manned during air battle operations and provides necessary command and control links to interface with higher echelon, lateral and subordinate battalions, and its own firing units.
(2) The ECS is the only manned station in the battery during the air battle and is the operations control center of the Patriot battery. The ECS contains the weapons control computer (WCC), man/machine interface and various data and communication terminals. Its prime mover is a 5-ton tactical cargo truck.
(3) The RS is a multifunction, phased-array radar mounted on an M860 semitrailer. The prime mover is an M983 10-ton heavy expanded mobility tactical truck (HEMTT) tractor.
(4) The LS is a remotely operated, fully self-contained unit, carrying integral on-board power. The launcher is mounted on an M860 semitrailer towed by a M983 HEMTT 10-ton tractor. Each LS may be loaded with four PAC-2 missile rounds (MRs), or 16 PAC-3 missile rounds if the LS is PAC-3 modified. The MR consists of a Patriot missile mounted within a sealed aluminum canister that functions both as a shipping and storage container and as a launch tube. Canisters are either single or 4-packs and are mounted two by two on the launcher.
(5) The CRG provides a multi-routed, secure, two-way data relay capability between the ICC and its assigned fire units and adjacent units. The CRG also provides the capability for both data and voice exit and entry point communications with elements external to the Patriot ADA battalion.
(6) The AMG consists of four ultra high frequency (UHF) antennas used for communications between the ICC, CRG, ECS and adjacent units and or higher echelons. The AMG can be remotely controlled in azimuth from within the ECS.
(7) The EPP consists of two 150-kw generator sets, a power distribution unit (PDU), cables, and accessories mounted on a modified HEMTT. The PDU is stored between the generators and contains a parallel powerbus and power contractors to supply prime power to the ECS and RS.
Testing of Patriot's response to a unique, advanced electronic countermeasure (ECM) technique exposed an air defense system weakness and recommended corrective measurees. Over 155 Patriot surveillance investigations and 6 missile firings were completed in extensive ECM environments consisting of stand-off jamming, selfscreening jamming, and chaff.
The AN/MPQ-53 is a frequency-agile multifunction G/H- Band radar group which performs surveillance, Identification Friend-or-Foe (IFF), tracking and guidance, and Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) functions entailed in the Patriot tactical air defence missile system. The antenna array is a 2.44 m diameter, 5,161-element phased-array planar configuration carried on a semi-trailer chassis. The antenna unit has separate arrays for target detection and tracking, missile guidance and IFF functions. The last of these tasks is carried out by an AN/TPX-46(V)7 interrogator, using a supplementary array adjacent the main circular search and track array on the antenna unit. Other supplementary arrays are for sidelobe cancellation and missile guidance signal reception.
The interrogator set AN/TPX-46(V)7 consists of the central processing/receiver-transmitter chassis and Mode 4 control panel chassis which accomodates interrogator computer KIR-1A/TSEC. Contractor designed antenna is integral to radar set face (LIN r18815, BOIP 770208). The IFF is designed for automatic operation under control of the engagement control station (ECS) weapon control computer. The Interrogator Set Mark XII/SIF equipment utilizes AN/TPX-46(V)7 technology for dedicated application to the Patriot system. The IFF provides a rapid secure means of identifying suitably equipped friendly aircraft, and thereby avoid their destruction by friendly fire. It is employed by Patriot fire unit, and is controlled and monitored by the engagement control station (ECS).
|Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list|