Civil War Fragmentation
The great revolutionary upheaval in Russia and the military conquests by the German and Austro-Hungarian forces resulted not only in the first steps toward the reestablishment of Poland, but also brought about the breaking up of the vast dominions of the Russian Empire into a large number of ethnical and political groups seeking independence and self-government. The military occupation of western Russia brought about the establishment of provisional governments formed by the Central Powers, a measure designed to separate these areas from Russia and so to place them securely under Teutonic control. The defeat of the Central Powers failed to stop the impetus given the striving for self-determination among Poles, Finns, and Baltic peoples. The Polish Republic, as we have seen, rose out of the defeat of Germany and Austria. The Finns, Esthonians, Livonians, Latvians, and Lithuanians, whose independence had been stipulated in the treaty between Germany and Russia, clung to their hopes for freedom. The Ukrainians, or Little Russians, a Slav group in Southwest Russia, also began a struggle for independence. In other sections governments of varying stability have been established.
While the various groups of Russian political agitators attempted one by one to include all of the former Russian territory in their proposed governments, they were opposed by various groups of people in the different sections of that great area, who desired to establish themselves respectively as new and independent States, composed of distinct ethnic or racial stocks. All the small States which have split off from Russia did so only because they were forced to it by Bolshevist misrule. Under the original revolution they all expressed a desire for close federal union.
The abdication of the Emperor Nicholas II in March, 1917, was followed by a Provisional Government, which continued until May 16, 1917, when it was reorganized with Alexander Kerensky as the head of the new Cabinet. At the great national conference held in Moscow in August 1917 the position of the various nationalities in Russia and their relation to Great Russia under the new condition brought about by the revolution were also thoroughly discussed. At that important gathering it was made manifest that there was no considerable demand for separation from Russia in any of the border provinces from the Gulf of Finland to the shores of the Caspian Sea. The representatives of Esthonia, Latvia, Ukrainia, White Russia, Georgia and other Transcaucasian districts testified, with hardly an exception, that what they wanted was not separation from Russia, but a generous autonomy in a federative Russian Republic.
In September, 1917, a conference of representatives of various nationalities in Russia was held at Kiev. It was attended by delegations of Esthonians, Letts, Lithuanians, Jews, Ukrainians, Cossacks, Georgians and Tartars. Its demand as ultimately formulated was: Russia must become a democratic Federal Republic. There must be formed a council of representatives of nationalities which is to co-operate with the Provisional Government. The Russian delegation to the future Conference of Peace should include representatives of such nationalities whose interests are immediately involved in questions to be decided by the conference.
The Bolshevist coup d'etat in October, 1917, maintained itself until November 7, 1917, when the Military Revolutionary Committee seized the government authority and handed it over to the All-Russian Congress of the Councils of Workmen's, Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies. A Constituent Assembly was created and a form of government established controlled by the Executive Committee of the Congress of the Councils of Workmen's, Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies. On November 23, 1917 the People's Commissars at Petrograd issued a decree confirming the right to freedom and selfdetermination on the part of the various nationalities of Russia and expressly stating that "this right of the Russian peoples to their self-determination is to be extended even as far as separation and the formation of independent States."
On January 31, 1918, a decree was issued establishing the permanent character of the Workmen's and Peasants' (Bolshevik) Government. On March 14, 1918, the People's Commissioners left Petrograd for Moscow, which thus became the center of the Government. The title of the Government thus established was the "Russian Federated Republic" ; its flag is red, with the legend "Federal Republic of the Soviets."
Its control over Russian territory could not be definitely stated, however, as to the area in which it exercises jurisdiction and administers government, or the number of people under its immediate control or administration. In every part of the area formerly known as Russia groups of people have established themselves by proclamation and organization as independent governments, in nearly all cases republics. In the southeastern section of Russia, with its considerable sprinkling of Tatar stock intermingled with Slavic blood, a half-dozen small republics sprang into existence. In what was left of Russia seemed to have been formed some five or six self-determining regions.
Russian Civil War Fragmentation - New States
- The Republic of Poland was formed in part from Russian and in part from German and Austrian territory. While no exact figures were immediately available at present as to the area or population of Poland, an estimate by Polish authorities put the total area at 135,000 square miles and a population of 36,000,000. To the former territory of Russian Poland must be added those territories ethnographically Polish. This would include a large part of Upper Silesia, East Prussia, Galicia, Posen, and perhaps a part of Lithuania.
- Still further north, the people of the area long known as Finland declared themselves in December, 1917, an independent republic, with a population of about 3,500,000 and an area of 125,000 square miles, extending northward to within a short distance of the Arctic Ocean. Finland remained a Republic, notwithstanding the fact that the German Government had demanded that it should elect as its king one of those many princelings who are aspiring to occupy thrones. To this request the Finnish Landtag made no reply; in fact, the Finns who were so eager to seek the help of Germany were regretting their action, inasmuch as they were suffering from that German greed which had manifested itself in every place. The country had been stripped of food.
- Immediately west of the Republic of White Russia and extending to the Baltic another new republic was established in April, 1918, under the title of the Republic of Lithuania, with an area of approximately 90,000 square miles and a population estimated at about 10,000,000. The Republic of Lithuania was proclaimed at Riga, November 30, 1918, but the nationalistic aspirations of the Latvians, distinct ethnically from the Lithuanians, resulted in the establishment of a separate state, Latvia. Lithuania, as claimed by the Lithuanians, consists of the provinces of Kovno, Vilna, Grodno, Minsk, and parts of Moghilev and Vitebsk. But the Poles have not abandoned claims to certain areas of this region in Grodno, Vilna, and Minsk.
- Northwest of Lithuania the Lettish people occupying the peninsula lying between the Gulf of Riga and the Baltic established the Republic of Letvia (also written Latvia), with an area of about 9,000 square miles and a population of approximately 1,500,000. By another accoun, the Latvian Republic was about 24,400 square miles in area and contained about 2,500,000 inhabitants, including Courland and the southern part of Livonia. The boundaries were based largely on ethnographic lines. The capital is at Riga, an important port.
- The independence of the Esthonian Republic was proclaimed in November, 1917, the new state to include Esthonia, Livonia, and Courland. The territory immediately north of Livonia declared itself in April 1918, as the independent Republic of Esthonia. It fronted not only upon the Baltic, but on the Gulf of Finland, the entrance to the harbor of Petrograd. Its area is stated at about 7,300 square miles and its population at 1,750,000, though another account reported the area of the republic to be about 15,000 square miles and the population about 1,250,000. Its independence from Russia was guaranteed in the peace treaty between Russia and Germany, but it was stipulated therein that the new republic should be policed by German troops. These troops remained in the Baltic region, according to provisions in the Treaty with Germany, but contrary to the later demand for evacuation by the Peace Commission. In the summer and fall of 1919 these German forces began an unsuccessful campaign against the Baltic people, and were finally forced to withdraw. The frontiers of Esthonia, since the establishment of the Republic of Latvia in Courland and Southern Livonia, follow ethnographic lines and include the important city of Reval.
- The Republic of Ukrainia was one of the largest and earliest of the groups establishing themselves as independent governments, occupying the southwestern section of Russia and fronting upon the Black Sea, with Odessa as its principal port. It declared its independence on November 21,, 1917, under the title of the "Ukrainian Peoples Republic," but its boundaries were somewhat in dispute, especially with the neighboring Republic of Poland. The new state made peace with Germany February 9, 1918. The original government was overthrown and replaced by one that was supported by the Germans, who purposed to put to their own uses as much of the natural resources of the region as possible. With the defeat of Germany, this government was replaced by a regime instituted by a faction hostile to the radical govern"ment in Great Russia. The republic was recognized by the Peace Commission in March, 1919.The boundaries were undefined. The Ukrainian Republic had, so far as can be determined, an area of about 215,000 square miles and a population of approximately 30,000,000. It had a large part of the area known as the "Black Soil District", the richest agricultural region of the old European Russia, and its agricultural and mineral possibilities were important. The new Republic has became the battleground of the struggle between the Bolsheviki and the supporters of a united Russia under a conservative government. By January, 1920, the entire region was under the control of the Bolsheviks except in the West, where the Poles had established their forces.
- Immediately north of the Ukrainian Republic was a group of people known as the White Russians, who established themselves in May, 1919, as the Republic of White Russia, with an area estimated at 140,000 square miles and a population of approximately 5,000,000.
- The Turkestan area, east of the Caspian, consisting of about 400,000 square miles and with a population of 6,500,000, was in January, 1918, established as an independent government under military control in Turkestan Tashkent. On July 26, 1918, a national congress declared Turkestan an independent republic, but later it was largely overrun by the Russian radical forces. Its territory includes the provinces of Turkestan, Ferghana, Samarcand, SyrDaria, and Semiryechensk, the Steppe province Turgai, and the former Russian dependencies Bokhara and Khiva. The area is about 698,000 square miles and the population approximately 9,287,000.
- The Tartar-Bashkir Republic, north of the Caspian was established in October, 1918, its area being estimated at 175,000 square miles and its population at 9,000,000; the government is under military control.
- The Republic of Georgia, at the extreme eastern end of the Black Sea, with an area of 40,000 square miles and a population of 2,500,000, was declared an independent State in January, 1918. Although the Georgians would prefer autonomy within a federated Russian republic to complete independence, they would prefer the latter to union with Turkey, either with autonomy or without it.
- The Tatars in the east set up an independent government under the name of Azerbaijan.
- The Armenians in Transcaucasia at the same time uniting with the Armenians of Northeast Turkey to form a republic.
- Immediately north of Lithuania the little Republic of Courland, with an area of 10,000 square miles and a population of 800,000, was declared an independent Government in April, 1918.
- Next north of Courland and fronting upon the Gulf of Riga, a part of the Baltic, the Republic of Livonia was declared in April. 1918, with an area of about 17,000 square miles and a population of approximately 1,600,000.
- Further east on the Arctic frontage the greater part of the former Russian province of Archangel was established under the title of the Republic of North Russia, with Nicholas Tchaikovsky as its head, and its existence as a separate government recognized by certain of the powers, especially Great Britain. Its area is estimated at 275,000 square miles and its population at about 400,000. The government of Northern Russia, bordering on the Murmansk Coast, embraced six of the Northern provinces of Russia. It was formed on perfectly legitimate lines, as laid down by the Bolsheviki themselves, and its first achievement was the expulsion from Archangel and the districts surrounding it of the Bolsheviki, of whose tyranny it had sad experience. This was done with the help of the British and French who had landed at Kola for the defence of the munitions and stores which had been accumulated for the help of Russia in the war against Germany. It was by way of the Northern Government of Russia and the Eastern Government of Siberia, through Kola and Vladivostok, that the help which at last this the US and Japan have resolved to give to Russia, found its way into that country. The Government of the region of Northern Russia, not recognizing the peace treaty of Brest, has set as its aim the expulsion of the Germans out of the boundaries of Russia and the creation anew of a great and indivisible Russia. Owing to the initiative of the League of Regeneration of Russia, composed of representatives of all political parties, except the extreme ones, the Government of the region of Northern Russia was formed by delegates of the Northern Provinces to the Constituent Assembly and by representatives of the Zemstvos and towns of the region.
- A part of the Archangel province was set up as an independent government under the title of the Murman region. The population of both North Russia and the Murman region is composed largely of Lapps, Finns and Samoyedes. The Murman region which had been organized under an independent regional council fell to the Bolsheviks in February, 1920.
- Immediately south of the White Sea and on the eastern border of Finland the Republic of Eastern Karelia was established in May, 1919, and authorized to create a Constituent Assembly to determine whether the area shall form an alliance with Finland or Russia. The area of this republic is about 68,000 square miles and the population approximately 250,000.
- The Tauride Republic, including the Crimean Peninsula, with an area of approximately 23,000 square miles and a population of 1,800,000, declared itself independent of Russia in March, 1918;
- The old Russian government of Ciscaucasia, comprising the provinces of Kuban, Terek, and Stavropal, proclaimed its independence on April 22, 1918. In November, 1918, Kuban was formed into a separate republic. In the east and southeast, the Lesghians proclaimed an independent republic, known as Daghestan.
- The Kuban Republic, just east of the Sea of Azov, with an area of 36,000 square miles and a population of 3,000,000, declared itself independent in November, 1919;
- The Terek Republic, at the southeast of Kuban and extending north across to the Caspian Sea, with an area of 28,000 square miles and a population of 1,300,000, declared itself independent in September, 1918;
- In the east and southeast of Ciscaucasia, the Lesghians proclaimed an independent republic, known as Daghestan.
- South of the Caucasus, the so-called Independent State of Transcaucasia stemmed from the Trebizond Conference, in March, 1918, where Turkey - undoubtedly acting as Germany's vassal - demanded recognition of the Brest-Litovsk treaty and the establishment of Transcaucasia as an independent State. The people of Transcaucasia had no choice in the matter at all. There were no Russian bayonets to protect them against Turkey. the government of Transcaucasia proclaimed independence from the central Bolshevik government in the fall of 1917. The centralized government did not remain long in control, however, the Georgians, in May, 1918, proclaiming a separate republic. The Tatars in the east also set up an independent government under the name of Azerbaijan, the Armenians in Transcaucasia at the same time uniting with the Armenians of Northeast Turkey to form a republic.
- The Don Republic, lying at the northeast of the Sea of Azov and fronting upon that sea, with an area of 63,000 square miles and a population of 4,000,000, declared itself independent in January, 1918. The Hetman, Denikine, invaded Ukrainia and at first was successful against the Bolsheviki of Great Russia. The Don Cossacks drove out the Bolsheviki from the regions they occupied. But in December, 1919, and January, 1920, Denikin suffered a series of reverses and was driven back in utter rout to his own country.
- An independent Tauride Republic was established in the Taurida, March, 1918, which eventually fell to the Bolsheviks.
- Passing across the Urals into Siberia, the independent Republic of Siberia was proclaimed in December, 1917 with its capital at Tomsk, and a Siberian Duma of 30 members was opened. The republican form of government, however, was replaced in November, 1918, by a dictatorship. It was decided for the time being to concentrate all power in the hands of a single individual, Admiral Kolchak, who, with the financial support of the Allied and Associated Powers, for some time fought the government in Great Russia without final success. In December, 1919, and January, 1920, the American and Czecho-Slovak forces were withdrawn from Siberia. The area of Siberia, not including Yakutsk, is 3,301,629 square miles and the population 10,045,300. No statement was made as to the actual area claimed by the Republic of Siberia, though presumably it would include a large part of the area of Siberia, stated at 4,832,000 square miles, and a population of 10,378,000.
- At the extreme northeast of the Siberian area, a separate government, designated as the Yakutsk Republic, was established in May, 1918, with a military government, and an area estimated at about 1,000,000 square miles and a population of 400,000. By another account, Yakutsk had an area of 1,530,253 square miles and a population of 332,600.
- A new government, that of Eastern Siberia, was established at Vladivostok; and another government at Omsk in Western Siberia. The group in Vladivostok, known under the title of "The Siberian Temporary Government," was closely united and, in fact, did not differ in any way from the authorities established in Omsk, which seemed to be but a part of the same Government. The United Siberian Government stated that it was elected on the 26th of January, 1918, by the members of a regional Siberian Duma - representative assembly. The point where this Government temporarily transferred its center is Vladivostok, the other members of it remaining at Omsk. A message from those at Omsk stated that owing to combined efforts of the Czechoslavs and the military organizations of the Siberian Government itself, the following cities had been liberated from the Bolsheviki: Marlinsk, Novo Nicolaievsk, Tomsk, Narime, Tobolsk, Barnaoul, Carcaralinsk, Atchinski, and Krasnoiarsk.
- In Eastern Siberia in addition to the government just mentioned, General Horvath operated with his army.
- General Seminoff was in command of yet another army which at one time was reported to have been decisively defeated and even disbanded, but it still made its appearance from time to time.
- The Arctic frontage of Russia lying immediately east of the northern part of Finland was established as a military district by the Allied Powers on July 7, 1918, with a military government, and had an area of approximately 35,000 square miles and a population estimated at about 100,000. The Allied forces had been invited to land by the Sovereign Government of Northern Russia.
- Bessarabia, formerly part of the Russian Empire, was predominatingly Roumanian in population. Union of this region with Roumania was voted by the Bessarabian Council. The area and population of Roumania was almost doubled by acquisitions, the area reaching 104,000 square miles and the population about 14,000,000.
Russian Civil War - Re-Conquest
Since the fall of Kerensky's moderate government, eight months after the formation of the republic, the central region of Russia remained in the possession of the Bolsheviki. This region included the ethnic subdivision of Slavic Russia known as Muscovy, or Great Russia. The Bolshevik government was continuously attacked by supporters of a Russian Confederation based on more conservative principals. In the summer of 1920, at the height of their power, the Bolsheviks controlled Ukrainia and practically all European Russia, except the territory of the Balkan states, with which they had made peace, Bessarabia, part of Poland, and a small district near the Tauride peninsula. They had also taken Azerbaijan and southwestern Siberia. Transbaikalia was recognized as an independent republic, but Siberia was largely Bolshevik. Later the Bolsheviki were victorious against the forces opposing them in southern Russia and gained possession of the entire Crimean peninsula, but they lost much territory by a treaty with Poland, and anti-Bolshevik uprisings were reported in various parts of Russia.
In the extreme north of European Russia the two military governments organized under the tide of The Murman Region and North Russia, established largely as a protection for the Allied troops operating in that area, have, since the withdrawal of the troops, disappeared from maps and from public attention and presumably ceased to exist as separate organizations.
In Southeastern Russia, known as the Caucasus Region and occupying the area between the Crimean Peninsula and the Caspian Sea, a half dozen ambitious little republics, some of which received certain aid from the military forces of Denekin, Kolchak and Wrangel, successively, operating against the Bolshevist government, have gradually succumbed to the pressure of that government, following the defeat and withdrawal of the forces by which they were supported. With little formality the Tauride Republic, the Kuban Republic, the Terek Republic, the Don Republic, the Tatar-Bashkir Republic, the Daghestan Republic and the Republic of Turkestan, have been subjected to the Soviet group.
In the two republics of Azerbaijan and Georgia, occupying the area between the eastern end of the Black Sea and the Caspian and which had established a more distinct political organization, the process of subordination to Soviet rule was more formal, and the various steps of their subjugation more distinctly announced, but their autonomous governments have, in each case, been in a large degree wiped out and that of the Soviets established, and with it a complete control obtained by the Soviets of the great oil fields and wells of Azerbaijan and the pipe lines connecting them across Georgia with its Black Sea port of Batum.
With the absolute control by the Soviets of the Georgia and Azerbaijan region, lying immediately north of Russian Armenia, and a like occupancy of the area at its south by the forces of the Turkish National ists under Mustapha Kernel, the Armenian government was no longer able to resist the desire of the Soviets and the Young Turks for a joint occupation of that area as a connecting link between Soviet Russia and the Turkish Nationalists in Asia Minor. So the closing month of 1920 witnessed the practical downfall of the Armenian Republic organized in south Russian territory in May, 1918, while the area at its immediate south, known as Turkish Armenia, which had not yet attached itself to Russian Armenia, is apparently under control of the Turkish Nationalists.
The great Siberian section of pre-war Russia, which established itself in December, 1917, as the Independent Republic of Siberia, with its capital at Tomsk and later placed under the military control of Admiral Kolchak, passed again under Soviet control after the downfall of Kolchak. In the extreme eastern part of Siberia, the area lying between Lake Baikal and the Pacif1c, a new republic was established after the downfall of Admiral Kolchak, under the title of the Far Eastern Republic, and apparently still maintains its independence. This republic was, according to a statement by the Bolshevist Chief for Foreign Affairs in Siberia, formally recognized by the Soviet government on May 17, 1920, though the Japanese government still maintains control of certain parts of the Pacif1c frontage, including the northern half of the island of Saghalin, held pending compensation for the massacre of Japanese at Nikolaivosk.
Thus a full dozen of the new political divisions appearing upon the maps in 1919 disappeared during the year 1920. The population which they represented aggregated probably 35,000,000 and the area, including that of the great independent Republic of Siberia, reached into the millions of square miles. It is proper to add, however, that a large proportion of these political units which have been eliminated during 1920 were, in part at least, created as military exigencies, and their downfall as independent governments was the natural result of the disappearance of the military organizations by which they were created and supported. The three tiny republics fronting on the Baltic composed of groups of similar ethnic origin-Livonia, Courland and Latvia-have been merged into one, retaining the title of Latvia.
The area which witnessed the downfall of the dozen republics disappearing during 1919-20-the Caucasus region-is that occupied by a mixture of Tartar, Mongol and Slavic stock, while in the areas in which the population is strictly European-Slavic, Finnish, Lettish, Lithuanian, Ruthenian, Rumanian, Germanic-the various states which emerged from the war period are still in existence. Whether the fact that the republics composed of a mixture of Asiatic and European stocks, were the first to succumb to pressure and lose their identity as individual organizations, is at all chargeable to the peculiarities of the mixture of ethnic stocks composing the population is, of course, difficult to determine. This is especially true in view of the extraordinary difficulties surrounding the attempt of these peoples to maintain themselves as separate political units in an area little acquainted with such type of government, and with little encouragement from the stronger governments of this kind.
Nevertheless, it is a fact that most of the republics built from the mixture of Asiatic and European stocks disappeared during the first year of test, while those composed strictly of European stock stood the test of the first complete year despite the many difficulties which they faced in the attempt to establish themselves industrially, financially, and commercially.
Russian Civil War - The Czecho-Slovaks
An interesting factor in the Russian situation appeared in the Czecho-Slovaks. Originally prisoners or deserters from the Austrian armies, the Czechoslovaks, mainly natives of Bohemia, found themselves in a peculiar situation. They neither wished nor dared to go back to Austria, where they would be treated as rebels and traitors, so they decided to stay in Russia. Wandering through the country, well organized and well armed, they began to establish their control over cities and districts. To the Bolsheviki, the Czecho-Slovaks were a source of worry, as their ranks were being augmented by the opponents of Bolshevism.
The Czecho-Slovak forces were divided, one part, and that the smaller, being at or in the neighborhood of Vladivostok, the other on the borders of European Russia at Samara in possession of a long extent of the Siberian Railroad and the Volga River. That an army should spring up in Central Siberia ready and willing to help the Allies, was a development utterly unexpected. It surely required some explanation. Those CzechoSlovaks were Austrian subjects who at first driven into the War by Austria against their fellow Slavs, permitted themselves to be made prisoners by Russia. But when the Bolsheviki made peace with Germany and attempted to disarm them the CzechoSlovaks protested, and for a time were able to resist all such attempts by the Bolsheviki. That they had been able to resist successfully is a clear proof that they had the sympathy of large numbers of the Russian people. They not only refused to lay down their arms, they took the field and large districts of Russia were for a time under their control. These districts comprised the most fertile parts of Russia, and therefore the Czecho-Slovaks had been able to cut off the food supply from the Russian capital. Their number was estimated from fifty thousand to three hundred thousand. The Czecho-Slovaks were to be found not only in Siberia, but also on the Italian and on the Franco-British-American front. The Entente Powers recognized them as belligerents and their native State, although it was still under Austrian domination, as a native belligerent State.
Armed conflict began on May 26, 1918. The Czechoslovaks opened operations against forces of Bolsheviki and Teutonic exprisoners simultaneously in the region of the Volga and in Siberia. In Siberia, they defeated and ousted the pro-Germans from Irkutsk and Vladivostok, occupied several towns on the Amur river, and by the middle of July were in possession of 1300 miles of the Trans-Siberian railway west of Tomsk. In the meantime, in June, they had captured Samara, Simbirsk, and Kasan on the Volga, had advanced to Ufa in the Ural Mountains, and had gained control of the chief grain routes and deprived European Russia of the Siberian food supply.1 The Czechoslovaks thus did heroic work in preventing the consummation of Teutonic designs on Russia and in arousing national opposition to the Bolshevist regime, but they could not hope with their slender forces to retain their hold on such a vast territory unless they received active assistance from the Allies.
Throughout the summer of 1918, from June to September, the armies of the Czecho-Slovaks fought their way back and forth over Siberia, and by fall all of the local Soviets in Siberia had been overthrown: the Bolshevik power had been destroyed, and from Samara and Perm to Vladivostok the ghost of Bolshevism had disappeared. This the brave armies of the Czecho-Slovaks had accomplished, depending entirely upon their own physical strength and upon the supplies which they found in Russia and which they captured from the Red army. There is no territorial advance in the annals of the war as dramatic and rapid as was that of the Czecho-Slovak revolutionary army in that vast ex-empire of Siberia. These 50,000 Czecho-Slovak soldiers had established an organization in every important city along the great Trans-Siberian Railway. They maintained order; assumed direction of the railroads without interfering with any local government except those avowedly Bolshevists. Thus, at the beginning of September, Siberia was free from the Red rule.
After long waiting the US President complied with the request of Japan and has decided, in cooperation with that country, to send a military force to Russia to be followed by economic help in the shape of food, machinery, and other things for the restoration of Russia's position. The avowed object of the expedition is to help the Czecho-Slovaks, whose safety was said to be endangered by the German and Austrian prisoners who have been formed into an army acting with the Bolsheviki. The official statement said that this assistance to be given to the Czecho-Slovaks was for the purpose of enabling them to move westward. Although Japan and the US were the only two powers that had come to an agreement to assist Russia, other powers had the right to participate. Great Britain sent soldiers from Hong Kong to Vladivostok, while France, from Cochin-China, sent four thousand of her own troops and a thousand Annamites.
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