Territorial Defense Forces
[Teritorialna Oborona - TrO]
Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskiy replaced the head of its Territorial Defence Forces. The Defence Ministry said Zelenskiy had appointed Major General Ihor Tantsyura to take over from Yuriy Halushkin as commander of the force. Thus, document 36336/2022 refers to the dismissal of Yuri Galushkin from the post of Commander of the Territorial Defense Forces of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. Kyiv does not talk about the reason for the exchange, and Galushkin was not transferred to another top position, so it will hardly be a reward for good service.
And by decree #337 / 2022 Igor Tantsyur was appointed to this position. There is little information about Igor Tantsyura in open sources. Until now, Tantsyura was the Chief of Staff - Deputy Commander of the Land Forces of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. Prior to that, the Major General took part in the Russian-Ukrainian war and was the first deputy commander of the Joint Forces Operation. Galushkin had been the commander of the Troop Forces since 01 January 2022. Igor Tantsyura was previously the head of the 169th Training Center of the Land Forces of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. In 2019, he became Chief of Staff and First Deputy Commander of the Joint Forces Operation.
Reportedly Galushkin was dismissed for “for numerous miscalculations in the organization of the service”. One rumor suggested he had sent the 109th and 110th Brigades into combat without adequate armament. Minister of Defense of Ukraine Oleksiy Reznikov stated "The 109th Troops Battalion, together with Marines, Guards, Border Guards, Police, SBU and Intelligence Soldiers, has been participating in the heroic defense of Mariupol for more than 80 days. ... The explosive growth of the structure, especially in conditions of intense fighting - is a huge experience, it is mistakes and achievements, it is successes and, unfortunately, losses."
The Ukrainian 110th Separate Territorial Defense Brigade launched successful artillery strikes on a stationed Russian armored group in Zaporizhia Oblast on 26 April 2022. But days later, units of the 110th Brigade from Zaporizhzhia Oblast suffered massive losses in defending part of the Zaporozhye front. Russian forces were able to advance in the area by almost 20 kilometers. Allegedly because the defenders did not have enough anti-tank weapons (according to other reports, they were not sufficiently trained in their use). Some militia units in the Donbas allegedly had the same problem of insufficient equipment for fighting Russian tanks.
While the soldiers of the Lviv 103rd Brigade of the Territorial Defense Forces of the Armed Forces of Ukraine were at the front, their wives, sisters and mothers were "fighting" in the Lviv region. Women claim that their men were deceived - instead of defending the Lviv region, they were sent east unprepared and improperly armed. The wives and relatives of the soldiers of the 103rd Brigade gathered in the evening of 11 May 2022 in the crowded hall of the House of Officers in Lviv. The women took the initiative. Then the conversation lost its logical consistency and tact. "They went there in their cars, did not receive fuel, they were advised to refuel themselves," "When brought, they sat for 4 hours in the pits with machine guns. And most importantly - shot at their retreating. It is good that there were no casualties. They have no radios. When the volunteers brought the walkie-talkies, the battalion headquarters took away those walkie-talkies.” “The guys are unprepared and demoralized. They were twice at the training range, they were taught to dig dugouts and trenches. And now they have thrown our children "for meat", deceived ", - continued to be heard from the hall.
On 04 May 2022, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine adopted a law allowing the use of territorial defense armed formations to carry out combat missions in combat zones. “The adopted changes provide an opportunity for territorial defense to carry out tasks together with other groupings of troops (forces) or groupings of joint forces intended to conduct military (combat) operations “to cut off armed aggression against Ukraine”, in the areas of military (combat) operations”.
Earlier territorial defense units could operate exclusively outside the war zones, performing auxiliary and police functions. It is worth recalling that earlier the Ukrainian authorities expanded the list of weapons that are allowed to be used by members of volunteer territorial defense formations [terbats = territorial battalions], including artillery and missile systems. It is possible that the decision to use territorial formations on the "front line" could be caused by a shortage of regular troops or heavy losses of the Armed Forces of Ukraine.
The law provides for two different structures - territorial defense within the Armed Forces and voluntary formations of territorial communities. The latter do not belong to the Armed Forces and do not receive salaries. In his opinion, in the first days of the war, some people did not understand and went to the Troops, not to volunteer groups. Therefore, there were people at the front who were not psychologically ready to fight.
The Verkhovna Rada allowed the territorial defense to perform tasks in areas of hostilities. Relevant amendments to the law "On the basis of national resistance" to enable territorial defense to perform tasks in areas of military (combat) operations were adopted by parliament on 03 May 2022. Some 338 people's deputies voted in favor. These changes "are designed to enable territorial defense to perform tasks together with other groups of troops (forces) or / or groups of joint forces designed to conduct military (combat) operations to repel armed aggression against Ukraine in areas of military (combat) operations." , it is said in the explanatory note to the bill.
The document excludes the restriction of the tasks of territorial defense until the moment of deployment within such territory of a group of troops (forces) or / or a group of joint forces intended for hostilities. The law also removes the norm, which enshrined the possibility of performing territorial defense tasks exclusively outside the areas of military (combat) operations. Now it is given the opportunity to carry out tasks throughout Ukraine, including areas of military (combat) operations.
The explanatory note said that the adoption of the bill "will significantly increase the capacity of territorial defense and make it a more effective unit in the system of security and defense forces and increase the overall level of defense capabilities of Ukraine."
On Sunday, 15 May 2022, President Volodymyr Zelenskyi replaced the Commander of the Territorial Defense Forces of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. This is evidenced by the relevant presidential decrees. Instead of Yuri Galushkin, who had been the commander of the Troops since their inception, Major General Igor Tantsyur, former Chief of Staff of the Land Forces of the Ukrainian Armed Forces, was appointed. On May 2, Zelensky awarded Tantsyur the Order of Bohdan Khmelnytsky III degree "for personal courage and selfless actions shown in defense of state sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine, loyalty to the military oath."
Territorial Defense Forces are assigned to a separate, fifth, branch of the Armed Forces of Ukraine (after the Land, Air, Navy and Special Operations Forces). Territorial defense has two components: military brigades (in each region) and battalions (in each district) of territorial defense, and volunteer detachments of territorial communities. The latter, in particular, will be allowed to use their own hunting weapons to carry out territorial defense tasks.
In addition to the direct tasks of protecting a certain area from the actions of the aggressor, protection of important objects, the forces of territorial defense can be used to assist in protecting the population from emergencies. All territorial defense fighters, both military and volunteer, will be protected by law.
The resistance movement, which should operate in the occupied territories, hinder the actions of the aggressor's troops, participate in intelligence, information-psychological and other special operations, is being regulated. In addition to Ukrainian citizens, it will be possible to involve foreigners and stateless persons.
Although the creation of territorial defense does not contradict any military rules on warfare, the Geneva Conventions and other international treaties, it is unclear whether Ukraine's "territorial defenders" will acquire important "combatant rights". It is also unclear whether this gives the enemy reason to consider it not a regular army of the country, but ordinary guerrillas.
The Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine issued about 10,000 machine guns to members of the volunteer battalions of the Territorial Defense Forces in Kyiv. This was announced 25 February 2022 by the deputy of the presidential faction "Servant of the People", the representative of the President of Ukraine in the Constitutional Court Fyodor Venislavsky. "Today, just an hour before the broadcast, I spoke with the Minister of Internal Affairs, Mr. [Denis] Monastyrsky, and he informed that in Kyiv, only in the last few hours, about 10,000 machine guns were issued to members of volunteer units of the territorial community," he said on air of the TV channel Rada on Friday night. According to Venislavsky, we are talking about "self-organized citizens who are subordinate to the command of the Territorial Defense Forces." "They are armed, at this time they are patrolling the streets of Kyiv," he added.
On January 1, 2022, the Law of Ukraine "On the Fundamentals of National Resistance" came into force, according to which the leading role in the organization and implementation of the tasks of territorial defense of Ukraine belongs to the Territorial Defense Forces of the Armed Forces. By a decree of January 1, 2022, President Volodymyr Zelensky appointed Yuri Galushkin , an experienced combat general, commander of the Territorial Defense Forces of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. In 2001-2002, Yuri Galushkin was a participant in an international peacekeeping operation in Kosovo (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia).
Ukraine removed age restrictions and simplified its procedures for citizens to join the military, the country’s Minister of Defense Alexey Reznikov said on 25 February 2022. “I decided, in agreement with the Commander of the territorial defense of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, Brigadier General Yuri Galushkin, to involve in the territorial defense the Patriots over 60 years old,” Reznikov said in a Facebook post, saying it applied to citizens who are “morally and physically ready to resist and defeat the enemy.” Only citizens aged between 18 and 60 were previously eligible to join the army.
From January 1, 2022, in accordance with the Law of Ukraine "On the Fundamentals of National Resistance" in the country deployed territorial defense forces. Given the escalating hybrid aggression of the Russian Federation and the aggravation of the situation around the borders, this law is one of the fundamental safeguards, a mechanism for implementing the concept of comprehensive defense of the state.
According to the Law of Ukraine "On the Fundamentals of National Resistance" there are three components of national resistance:
- territorial defense troops. In fact, it is light infantry that can help the main forces of the Armed Forces to guard important objects or the border, to be on duty at checkpoints or to counter saboteurs or other illegal groups on their territory. Another function of defense is to help during emergencies. Territorial defense is subordinated to the Armed Forces Command through the Commander of the Territorial Defense Forces.
- resistance movement. Its tasks are to create centers of resistance and "obstruct the actions of the aggressor's troops." In addition, the resistance movement may be involved in special operations, in particular, intelligence or information-psychological. The leading role in the organization, preparation, support and implementation of resistance tasks should belong to the Special Operations Forces of the Armed Forces, and the movement will be led by the commander of the SSO.
- preparing citizens for national resistance. It envisages the creation of an appropriate system of training, military-patriotic education and "preparation of the population for living conditions in areas of (military) hostilities."
Territorial defense includes: military, civilian and military-civilian components. The military component of territorial defense includes military administration bodies, military units of the Territorial Defense Forces of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, other forces and means of the security and defense forces involved in the implementation of territorial defense tasks. The civilian component of territorial defense includes state bodies, local governments, which are involved in territorial defense. The military-civilian component of territorial defense includes the headquarters of zones (districts) of territorial defense and voluntary formations of territorial communities involved in territorial defense.
The leading role in the organization and implementation of territorial defense tasks belongs to the Territorial Defense Forces of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. Territorial defense actually creates a network of citizens who, living their lives, are ready to take up arms at any moment. The number of the Armed Forces has been legally increased by 10,000. It allows forming the core of the defense. That is, there will be a permanent staff of servicemen who go to service and receive financial support, and reservists who will receive a monetary reward for the year, based on participation in exercises, implementation of the combat training plan and will continue to work in their main civilian positions.
At the end of 2014, Ukraine's territorial defense system underwent changes. The formed territorial defense battalions were reorganized into motorized infantry and transferred to the brigades of the Land Forces. Instead, a new structure of the territorial defense forces of the Armed Forces of Ukraine will be gradually introduced. It was planned to complete the formation of units of the Territorial Defense Forces by February 15, 2022. The process of forming the Command of the Territorial Defense Forces of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, regional military authorities, brigades and battalions of territorial defense forces, taking into account the level of threats in each region of Ukraine should be completed as soon as possible.
In general, the work continues in two directions:
- Preparation of bylaws and internal guidelines. This work is often not visible, but it is a colossal work that provides national resistance and protects citizens and the state from potential risks.
- Deployment of the Armed Forces TrO Forces: Command of the Armed Forces TrO Forces of Ukraine; Regional Departments of the SRS Forces of the Armed Forces of Ukraine and Departments of Individual Territorial Defense Brigades.
Manning of the Troops of the Armed Forces of Ukraine:
- first turn (until January 15, 2022) - Command of the Troop Forces, regional administrations of the Troop Forces and commands of thirteen Troop brigades;
- second turn (until 15.02.2022) - the rest of the military units (divisions) TrO.
As of 17 January 2022, 86% of the locations of Troop units throughout Ukraine had been identified. In the border regions, Troop brigades had gained 70% of their peacetime capacity since the beginning of January 2022. The pace of deployment of the military component of the Troops was accelerating.
While the soldiers of the Lviv 103rd Brigade of the Territorial Defense Forces of the Armed Forces of Ukraine were at the front, their wives, sisters and mothers are "fighting" in the Lviv region. Women write numerous angry posts on social networks, organize rallies in the districts and under the walls of the Lviv OVA. They claim that their men were deceived - instead of defending the Lviv region, they were sent east unprepared and improperly armed. When the situation became public, the leadership of the Troop Forces organized a meeting with the relatives of the fighters.
The wives and relatives of the soldiers of the 103rd Brigade gathered in the evening of 11 May 2022 in the crowded hall of the House of Officers in Lviv. Instead of the previously announced Commander of the Defense Forces Yuri Galushkin, his adviser, ex-People's Deputy Vitaliy Kupriy, and his assistant arrived for the meeting. Vitaliy Kupriy immediately warned that he would not decide anything on his own, but would report to the command on its results only based on the results of the meeting. He set aside an hour to discuss the problems. For the first half hour, the organizers more or less managed to keep the attention of the hall, which gathered more than 200 women. Later, the women took the initiative, and eventually the conversation turned to shouting and crying.
Vitaliy Kupriy explained that the current law (paragraph 2 of Article 20 of the Law on the Foundations of National Resistance), as amended on January 27, stipulates that on certain grounds, by decision of the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, Troop battalions may be involved outside their regions.
Then the conversation lost its logical consistency and tact. The women took the initiative. Almost everyone present tried to tell a personal or personal story about the 103rd Brigade and to show their awareness of the intricacies of the men at the front. "They had a criminal order to move towards the enemy without weapons. And there is a relief area, they were covered with artillery. They communicate with the enemy across the river. Without weapons, against modern enemy technology! Air bombs, air raids!”
"They went there in their cars, did not receive fuel, they were advised to refuel themselves," "When brought, they sat for 4 hours in the pits with machine guns. And most importantly - shot at their retreating. It is good that there were no casualties. They have no radios. When the volunteers brought the walkie-talkies, the battalion headquarters took away those walkie-talkies. ”“ The guys are unprepared and demoralized. They were twice at the training range, they were taught to dig dugouts and trenches. And now they have thrown our children "for meat", deceived", - continued to be heard from the hall.
"Zaporozhye write a letter to the Turkish sultan" - a famous painting by Russian and Ukrainian artist Ilya Repin, which he created in duplicate. The huge panel (3.58x2.03 m) was started in 1880 and completed only in 1891. According to legend, the letter was written in 1676 by Kosh Ataman Ivan Sirko "with all the Zaporozhian basket" in response to the ultimatum of the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Mehmed (Muhammad) IV. The original letter has not survived, but in the 1870s the Ekaterinoslav amateur ethnographer JP Novitsky found a copy made in the XVIII century. He passed it on to the famous historian DI Yavornytsky, who once read it as a curiosity to his guests, among whom was, in particular, I. Repin. The artist became interested in the plot and in 1880 began the first series of sketches.
Sultan Mehmed IV - to the Zaporozhian Cossacks:
I, sultan and lord of the Brilliant Gate, son of Ibrahim I, brother of the Sun and the Moon, grandson and vicegerent of God on earth, ruler of the kingdoms of Macedonia, Babylon, Jerusalem, Great and Little Egypt, king of kings, ruler of lords, incomparable knight, incomparable knight victorious warrior, owner of the tree of life, relentless keeper of the tomb of Jesus Christ, guardian of God himself, hope and comforter of Muslims, intimidator and great protector of Christians, I command you, Zaporozhian Cossacks, to surrender to me voluntarily and without any resistance.
The response of the Cossacks to Mehmed IV
Zaporozhye Cossacks to the Turkish Sultan!
You, sultan, are the devil of Turkey, and the damned brother and comrade, Lucifer's own secretary! What the hell are you like when you don't kill a hedgehog with your bare ass? The devil is drying up, and your army is devouring. You will not, you son of a bitch, have Christian sons under you. We are not afraid of your army, we will fight with you on land and water, your mother's robbery.
You are a Babylonian cook, a Macedonian chariot driver, a Jerusalem brewer, a Alexandrian goatherd, a pig farmer from Great and Small Egypt, an Armenian thief, a Tatar quiver, a Kamenets executioner, a clown all over the world and illuminated. You are a pig's snout, a mare's ass, a difference dog, an unbaptized forehead, your mother is fucked.
That's what the Cossacks told you, scoundrel. You will not be Christian pigs. Now we finish, because we don't know numbers and we don't have a calendar, a month in the sky, a year in a book, and a day like ours, like yours, kiss us in the ass for that!
Signed: Kosh Ataman Ivan Sirko with all the Zaporozhian basket
|Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list|