Territorial Defense Forces TrO - Doctrine
National resistance is “a component of Ukraine’s comprehensive defense, which includes a set of measures organized and carried out in peacetime and during special periods in Ukraine in order to involve Ukrainian citizens in actions aimed at ensuring military security, sovereignty and territorial integrity. the state, deterring and repelling aggression and inflicting unacceptable losses on the enemy, in view of which he will be forced to stop the aggression against Ukraine."
The readiness of every Ukrainian to resist is an important factor in deterring Russian aggression. Armed, trained and ready to counter the nation will repel the very desire of the enemy to attack further. Because it is very difficult to capture the territory whose population will resist, and it is impossible to hold it.
In the context of another aggravation of the situation at the borders: the enemy will not surrender, this is not the first and not the last "rattling of weapons." The probability of escalation will remain. In such conditions, changes in the army alone are not enough. Ukraine needs to change the consciousness of Ukrainians. It should be understood that the protection of Ukraine is a common duty of citizens. Ukrainians must be ready to defend the country. Protection of territorial integrity is the duty of every citizen.
Article 17 of the Constitution of Ukraine states: "Protection of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine, ensuring its economic and information security are the most important functions of the state, the business of the entire Ukrainian people. The army is defending at the front, and order on its territory is everyone's business."
In times of war, the key is the willingness and ability to defend one's country. After all, countries are at war. There can be no separate army, no separate country. Everyone in their place should do what they can. The army defends at the front, and order on its territory is everyone's business. First of all, it is peace in any village, in any hamlet. This is the general resistance to aggression, the general resistance of the enemy.
The mass readiness of society for armed repulse is something that can prevent war. When the enemy has to make calculations: what will happen if he tries to occupy new territories of Ukraine, start a war. Any enemy troops will feel extremely "uncomfortable", not only on the front line, but also in any city where there will be citizens who will resist the occupiers. Let's just imagine how events could have unfolded if in every Ukrainian city in 2014 there were those who were ready to take up arms and defend.
The Law on the Fundamentals of National Resistance defines the legal and organizational principles of national resistance, the basis for its preparation and conduct, and the tasks and powers of the security and defense forces on national resistance.
The Law No. 5557 " On the Fundamentals of National Resistance " also defines: the composition, purpose and objectives of national resistance; basics of construction, organization and conduct of territorial defense and resistance movement; the procedure for preparing the citizens of Ukraine for national resistance; organization of a system of leadership of national resistance; the procedure for the formation and staffing of military units of the Territorial Defense Forces of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, voluntary formations of territorial communities and the resistance movement; powers of security and defense forces, state bodies, local self-government bodies on issues of national resistance; the procedure for preparing, deploying and conducting territorial defense of Ukraine; financing and logistical support of national resistance; social and legal protection of persons participating in national resistance; responsibility for violations of legislation and other regulations on national resistance.
The President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelensky signed the laws "5557" On the Foundations of National Resistance "and" 5558 on Increasing the Number of the Armed Forces of Ukraine ", adopted by the People's Deputies on July 16, 2021. The adoption of Laws #5557 and #5558 is an important step in the transition to the concept of comprehensive defense, which was enshrined in the approved in late March 2021 Military Security Strategy to implement the National Security Strategy of Ukraine, approved by Presidential Decree of 14 September 2020 # 392, and relevant provisions of the Law of Ukraine "On National Security of Ukraine". Thus, Ukraine is on the path of a radical change in its approach to national security. The signing of the laws provides an opportunity to provide in the State Budget of Ukraine for 2022 the necessary financial resources to build a system of national resistance, as well as take into account the provisions of these laws in developing the Strategic Defense Bulletin and Defense Plan.
These Laws of Ukraine significantly strengthen the state's defense capabilities, as they provide a regulatory framework for the broad involvement of the population of Ukraine in countering the aggressor. With the Russian Federation continuing its militaristic plans, such a step to unite Ukrainian society around a common cause of national defense is critical.
For this purpose, a system of national resistance is being introduced - the involvement of the entire population in counteracting the aggressor, as well as preparation for such counteraction. It envisages the introduction of a system of general military training of the population, the development of territorial defense and the resistance movement. National resistance must become a nationwide affair and its measures will be carried out both in the controlled and in the occupied territories of our state. At the same time, territorial defense will be conducted throughout Ukraine outside the hostilities, and the resistance movement will be conducted in the temporarily occupied territory. In addition, the training component of Ukrainian citizens will be a significant contribution to the national and patriotic education of Ukrainians.
This concept envisages the activities of all defense and security forces to defend Ukraine under a single plan and under a single command. For example, the subordination of combat units and subdivisions of the National Guard to the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Ukraine in a special period by a separate decision of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief will ensure their effective use for state defense. The required level of coordination between the components of the security and defense sector is achieved.
The history of Ukraine in the twentieth century is full of heroic pages of the struggle for independence. After the First World War, the independent Ukrainian People's Republic and the Western Ukrainian People's Republic emerged on Ukrainian lands, which on January 22, 1919, united into a single Conciliar State. Unfortunately, the lack of agreement in the then political leadership led to the loss of state independence.
The outbreak of World War II brought a new chance for Ukraine. On June 30, 1941, in Lviv, on the initiative of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN), the Act of Restoration of the Ukrainian State was proclaimed. Stepan Bandera's ally Yaroslav Stetsko was appointed Prime Minister. Shortly after the Ukrainians' protest, the Nazis arrested the initiators of the Act and launched a wave of bloody repression. As a reaction to the Nazi occupation, a movement of national resistance was launched with renewed vigor - the underground network of the OUN and guerrilla units of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army.
The end of the Second World War did not bring peace to Ukrainian lands. Victory over Hitler's Germany was made possible by the intensification of another evil, Stalin's Soviet Union. The injustice of the peace achieved towards Ukraine and the legitimization of the Soviet occupation of Ukrainian lands led to the continuation of the armed resistance, which lasted until the early 1960s. Moscow managed to subdue Ukrainians thanks to hundreds of thousands of punishers, repression and prisons.
During almost 30 years of independence, the national resistance of Ukrainians has at least twice radically changed the vector of development of the Ukrainian state. The Orange Revolution of 2004 brought democratization and civil liberties to Ukraine. The Revolution of Dignity of 2013 actually thwarted Moscow's plans for a creeping occupation of the state.
It is no secret that the development of national resistance of Ukrainians to defend the statehood and independence of Ukraine in the modern Russian-Ukrainian war was extremely difficult. Improper organization of mobilization, especially in the beginning, problems with equipment and supplies - just the tip of the iceberg. Formed volunteer units for some time were generally outside the legal field.
At the end of March 2021, the "Military Security Strategy" was approved, which, in addition to Ukraine's non-alternative course to NATO, enshrined the concept of "comprehensive defense". The essence of the concept is that Ukraine is not trying to achieve military parity with Russia in terms of armaments or army, as this would lead to depletion and collapse of the economy, excessive militarization of society and, as a result, a social explosion.
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