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Military


Ground Forces - Modernization

Mechanized and armored force, which make a basis of the Army, execute tasks of holding the occupied areas, lines and positions tasks of enemy's impacts repelling, of penetrating enemy's defence lines, of defeating the enemy forces, of capturing the important areas, lines and objects, operate in structure of marine and landing troops. Mechanized and armored forces consist of mechanized and armoured divisions and brigades. Formations and units of mechanized and armored forces are equipped by: T-64, T-72, T-80, T-84 tanks; BTR-60, BTR-70, BTR-80 armoured personnel-carriers; BMP-1, BMP-2 infantry fighting vehicles; other types of armaments.

Armor

By 2014 most of Ukraines tanks were in storage and will stay there. There are more than 400 abandoned tanks at the plant in a secret, heavily guarded depot in the town of Kharkiv. The depot is in the Slobozhanshchyna region of eastern Ukraine - just 20 miles from the border with Russia.

The Ministry of Defence signed a contract with the State Enterprise "plant. Malysheva on modernization of 29 domestic tanks T-64 to type BM Bulat on 27 April 2009 for the modernization of 29-domestic tanks T-64 to type BM "Bulat"."The present contract is signed within the framework of the program of modernization of tanks T-64 for the needs of the armed forces of Ukraine and the decisions of the meeting of the Prime Minister of Ukraine from March 6, 2009, aimed at reviving the defense enterprise.

In accordance with the contract, implementation of the project on modernization of 29 years of tanks T-64 to type BM "Bulat" is designed for 2 years. For this purpose planned to allocate more than 200 million UAH, including 100 million in 2009. The plant fully prepared to perform this public contracts. Before the troops had already been sent several large parties, T-64 BM "Bulat", which received high praise in the military, and we have no doubts in successful and timely implementation of the new order, said Deputy Director of the State Enterprise "plant Malysheva "Nikolay Belov

It should be noted that in 2007-2008 years plant Malysheva upgraded and sent to the 1st separate Guards armored brigade of the 8th Army Corps army of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, which is deployed in Chernihiv oblast, 56 tanks, T-64 BM "Bulat". State Enterprise plant Malysheva proceeded to upgrade T-64B in 2004 commissioned by the Defense Ministry of Ukraine. After the modernization of the tank Gets the name BM "Bulat". Program modernization developed by kazennim enterprise "Kharkov Design Bureau of machine-building. O. Morozov ", and the main contractor of the State order is the State Enterprise" plant. Malysheva. The project also involved business concern "armored vehicles".

By late 2012 Ukraines Defense Ministry planned to buy Bulat modernized tanks instead of the new Oplot main battle tanks. The state budget funds allocated for 10 Oplot tanks will be sufficient to modernize a quantity of Bulat tanks that would meet the needs of all regular combat brigades of the Armed Forces.

Armored Vehicles

The Mykolayiv Mechanical-Repair Plant delivered five APCs to Ukraines Armed Forces in October 2011 and plans to produce 170 APCs of various sorts for the Ukrainian Armed Forces by 2017.

Some 200 armored vehicles "Dozor-b development of SE" Kharkiv Design Bureau of machine-building named. O. Morozov "(included in DC" Complaints") will be added to the arms of the armed forces and the National Guard. This was announced at the President of Ukraine Oleksandr Turchynov 4 June 2014 on the Cuguvs'komu range (Kharkiv region) during demonstrations of the tactical-technical characteristics "Dozoru." Features armored vehicles were also observed in a. Minister of Internal Affairs of Ukraine arsen Avakov and commanders of battalions involved in counter-terrorist operations in the East of the country. The small snow-Dozor desired and mobile parts of the armed forces and the National Guard. It is maneuverable, fast, can navigate any terrain at speeds up to 120 kilometers per hour, has enough strong armament, and the main thing it is much cheaper than regular armored personnel carriers ",-said a. Turchinov.

Ukraine bought 75 Saxons from a British company, reportedly paying $50,000 per vehicle a move that raised the eyebrows of military experts. British general Sir Richard Dannatt, who served as UK's Chief of the General Staff between 2006 and 2009, called the vehicles "quite useless." Others were less polite: Thomas Newdick in the popular blog "War is Boring" brought up memories of soldiers who rode in the APC, calling the vehicle an "armored bread van" and underscoring that the Saxon is extremely vulnerable in modern combat.

The first 20 Saxons arrived in Ukraine in February 2015, and appeart to have been heavily modified with additional armor. The delivery, organized through the Disposal Services authority, was carried out under a 2013 agreement. On 10 March 2015, an accident involving two of the APCs on the way from Kiev to the town of Berezan in the Kiev region resulted in the death of a Ukrainian soldier.

Only one-third of armored vehicles that the Ukrainian Army received in 2014 and 2015 were currently in service, Ukrainian weekly Zerkalo Nedeli (ZN) reported 28 June 2015. In 2014, the army received 20 units of BTR-3 and 25 units of BTR-4 armored vehicles. "Now, from that amount of modern equipment there are only 18 vehicles left in service," the source said. The Ukrainian armored vehicles are out of service not because of military action, but due to poor manufacturing, ZN said.

Furthermore, the Ukrainian army had problems with repairing its damaged military equipment. According to the General Staff of Ukraine, out of 102 BTR-2 armored vehicles that were repaired, 85 vehicles had various malfunctions in fire control systems, turret electronics, lubrication and cooling systems. The General Staff also reported that out of 90 repaired T-64 tanks, 66 armored vehicles had similar problems as "repaired" BTRs.

The Ukrainian stated-owned arms manufacture and exporter, Ukroboronprom, reported that Ukraine has imported a large batch of Czech-made BVP-1 (Bojove vozidlo pechoty 1) infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs). A technical inspection of the new units was carried out by officials on 02 April 2020. The state company Ukrspetsexport, a subsidiary of Ukroboronprom, has begun delivering 37 BMP-1 IFVs to the Ukrainian Armed Forces. Ukroboronprom has not detailed the supplier of the BMP-1 IFVs. The armored vehicles may have been exported by the Czechoslovak Group (CSG), the largest arms exporter of the Czech Republic. The BVP-1 (Bojov Vozidlo Pechot) is a Czechoslovak, amphibious tracked infantry fighting vehicle based on the Soviet BMP-1, the world's first mass-produced infantry fighting vehicle.

The Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, Colonel-General Ruslan Khomchak, paid a working visit to one of the military training grounds of Chernihiv region 22 July 2020, where comparative tests of BMP-1 with combat modules Parus, Spys, Shkval and Stylet ["Sail", "Spear", "Squall" and "Stiletto"] were conducted. The tests were conducted with the involvement of specialists from the State Research Institute for Testing and Certification of Arms and Military Equipment (DNDI VS OVT) in Chernihiv.

Each contender carries similar armaments. They are equipped with the ZTM-1/ZTM-2 30 mm automatic cannon, 7.62 mm PKT coaxial machine gun, 30 mm automatic grenade launcher, and anti-tank guided weapons from the Ukrainian Luch Design Bureau. They are also equipped with thermal imaging cameras or an infrared night channel.

The Stiletto combat module is equipped with a 30-mm ZTM-2 gun, an automatic grenade launcher, a 7.62-mm machine gun, as well as guided missile armament and reinforced armor. The new digital sighting systems OTS-20.04-01 on the combat module "Squall" and "Track-2-01" on the combat module "Stiletto" are responsible for the accuracy of combat modules. Both aiming systems are equipped with a laser rangefinder and thermal imager, but use different fire control algorithms. The "stiletto" was installed on the armament of the modernized state enterprise "Zhytomyr Armored Plant" BMP.

Squall is a Ukrainian unified combat module with a 30-mm automatic gun as the main weapon. "Squall" is armed with a 30-mm gun ZTM-1, 7.62-mm paired machine gun KT-7.62, 30-mm automatic grenade launcher AG-17 and anti-tank guided weapons.

The Spear combat module can be installed on tracked and wheeled combat vehicles of Ukrainian, Soviet and Western production without any modifications. The complex of armament of the combat module "SPIS" includes: 30 mm automatic gun - ZTM-1 (2A72), which has ammunition of 300 shells; 7.62 mm PKT machine gun with ammunition of 2200 rounds; and 30 mm automatic grenade launcher KBA-117 (AGS-17) with ammunition of 125 grenades.

Sail is a Ukrainian remote-controlled combat module installed on combat armored vehicles. The module is equipped with a 30-mm KBA-1 gun, a 30-mm automatic grenade launcher, a 7.62-mm KT-7.62 machine gun and a Barrier guided weapons complex with two missiles.

Army Aviation

The Army aviation is the most maneuverable branch of the Army, intended to conduct the tasks under different conditions of combat arms operations. Units and elements of the Army aviation provide reconnaissance, defeat weapons, equipment and humane resources of enemy, give fire support during the offence or counterattack, land tactical troops, deliver combat weapons and personnel at the specified areas, execute other main tasks. The Army consists of brigades and regiments of the Army aviation. Formations and units of the Army aviation are equipped by Mi-8, Mi-24 and their modifications.

The airmobile forces is a highly mobile component of the Army. The airmobile forces consists of formations, units and elements of the Army and the Army aviation, that well trained for combined activities in the rear of the enemy. The airmobile forces is in constant combat readiness and is the high mobility branch of forces, that is capable of conducting any task under any conditions. The airmobile forces consists of airmobile division, single airmobile brigades and regiments.

In 2011 Ukraines state-owned defence industry conglomerate Ukroboronprom and Frances Sagem have signed an agreement to renew cooperation on modernization of Mi-24 attack helicopter for the Ukrainian Army. The additional protocol to the 2008 agreement was signed on 2 December in Paris. In October 2008 Sagem and Ukraines state-owned Konotop Aircraft Repair Plant Aviakon signed a contract on modernization of Mi-24 helicopters for the Ukrainian Army. The modernized version of the Mi-24 will be equipped with avionics and thermal imagers produced by Sagem, as well as new Ukrainian-made engines and armament. Fourteen Ukrainian defense enterprises will participate in the modernization.

A new model of attack helicopter, the Mi-24P, was scheduled for testing in Crimea in 2012, with over 200 flights planned. The Mi-24P is equipped with an upgraded TV3-117 VMA-SBM1V engine produced by JSC Motor Sich, new sights, a satellite navigation system and other innovations. These upgrades significantly expand the use of helicopter for low and high altitude, day and night flights, as well as in hot climactic conditions. The Mi-24P is intended for export markets.

Rocket and Artillery

Rocket troops and artillery of the Army consist of formations of operational-tactical and tactical missiles, of formations and units of howitzer, cannon, jet-propelled and anti-tank artillery, of artillery reconnaissance, of mortar units and of units of anti-tank missiles. They are assigned to destroy human resources, tanks, artillery, anti-tanks enemy weapons, aircraft, objects of air defense and other important objects during the combat arms operations. Formations, units and elements of Rocket troops and artillery are equipped by: missile complexes of operational-tactical and tactical missiles; multi-launcher rocket systems, as Smerch, Uragan, Grad; Giacint, Pion, Akacia, Gvozdika howitzers; Shturm, Konkurs, Rapira anti-tank weapons.

Air Defense

The Army Air Defense covers troops against enemy attacks from air in all kinds of combat operations, during regrouping and dislocation on terrain. The Army Air Defense is equipped by effective surface-to-air missile systems and complexes of division level and antiaircraft missile and artillery complexes of regiment level characterized by high rate of fire, vitality, maneuverability, by capability of action under all conditions of modern combat arms operations. Surface-to-air missile systems and complexes of division level are equipped by surface-to-air missile complexes Osa, Kub, Tor. Antiaircraft missile and artillery complexes of regiment level are equipped by antiaircraft missile complexes Strila-10, Tunguska, Igla, Shilka.

Ukraine's exports of anti-aircraft missile systems are fulfilled only from the Defence Ministry's stocks. The average price equivalent of supplies in 2006-2008 is 80m dollars. Supply of Buk-M1 anti-aircraft systems to Georgia in 2007 has a special place, but not only due to political tensions. It was the first Buk division whose fighting capacity had been renewed thanks exclusively to the means of domestic defence enterprises. This methodology can be applied for repairing Ukrainian divisions of Buk-M1 anti-aircraft systems, as all of them have already worked out all determined pre-repair terms, but it was impossible to make arrangements for their repair in Russia in the last 10 years.

Ukraines Ground Forces will be equipped with new air defense systems by 2025, according to the Chief of the Ground Forcesscientific center in May 2011. These systems will include the Poltava surface-to-air missile system, the Bars man-portable air-defense systems, the modernized Osa-AKMsurface-to-air missile system, and the Colibri man-portable air-defense systems. State defense industry conglomerate UkrOboronProm presented modernized Buk-M1 (SA-11) and S-300P (SA-10) air defense systems to the leadership of Ukraines Armed Forces in late 2011. The demonstration included live fire under simulated battle conditions during the exercise Adequate Response-2011.

Non-Lethal Military Assistance

Since the start of the conflict in eastern Ukraine in 2014, the United States had provided Kiev with non-lethal military assistance. Ukrainian media revealed the age of Humvee vehicles that the US government sent to Ukraine within the framework of non-lethal military aid. A batch of 100 Highly-Mobile Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWVs), commonly referred as Humvees, delivered from the United States to Ukraine's Lviv Region, were manufactured between 1986 and 1995. The total customs value of 100 US Humvees was a mere 967,000 hryvnias (around $42,000), the Ukrainian source revealed.

Ukrainian servicemen discovered a list of problems when they started using the US Humvees. For example, due to the age of the vehicles their tires began to crack and it turned out that spare tires can't be found in Ukraine. The same thing could be said about other spare parts for the old vehicles, the Ukrainian vehicle consulting firm autoconsulting.com.ua.

Ukrainian servicemen took part in a welcome ceremony for first plane from United State with non-lethal aid including ten Humvee vehicles to Ukraine at Borispol airport near Kiev, March 25, 2015. Furthermore, to provide their Ukrainian colleagues with the "high-level" of protection on the battlefield, some of the US government sent Humvees have canvas-made doors, autoconsulting.com.ua said. The Humvees were delivered to Ukraine as part of Washington's non-lethal aid package, although each vehicle has a pre-mounted machine gun turret attached on top of it. However, since the old Humvees lack protection they would likely be dangerous for soldiers sitting in them.

Another problem with the Ukrainian Humvees is their tires. They are old and crumble, very likely because they have spent a lot of time at some military facility. The tires are also hard to find in Ukraine, and are pricey. At $1,000 per tire, the price tag is leaving Humvees stranded.

The Washington Post reported in 30 November 2015 that a Ukrainian special forces unit near the separatist-controlled city of Donetsk was using US-supplied Humvees dating from the late 1980s and early 1990s, based on serial numbers on the vehicles. Three of the Humvees had plastic doors and windows. The Post report also said the low quality of the gear calls into question the US governments commitment to a war that is entering its second year, a stark contrast with allegations that Russia keeps separatists in Ukraines east well-equipped.

The Pentagon countered reports of old and dilapidated U.S. equipment being given to Ukrainian fighters in the countrys east. The Pentagon, which had committed more than $265 million in security assistance to Ukraine since the fighting began, said U.S. assistance and equipment has made an important impact on operational effectiveness.

We provide Ukraine with the best possible equipment, taking into account available resources and the urgency with which the items are needed, Pentagon spokesman Navy Captain Jeff Davis wrote on 04 Decembe 2015. The Humvees referenced in the Post story might also have been part of the militarys standard program for transferring extra equipment where countries can take U.S. hardware as is.

Lethal Defenseive Weapons - Anti-Tank Missiles

By mid-2017, Washington was debating whether to supply lethal defensive weapons to Ukraine, a move that would mark a turning point in U.S. policy on Kyiv's 3-year-old conflict with Russian-backed separatists. Opponents of the move worry that supplying lethal weapons to Ukraine could escalate the conflict and provoke retaliation from the Kremlin, which has already denounced the possibility.

Supporters of the move, which is under active consideration by President Donald Trump's administration, argue that it is long overdue. The current policy of supplying only non-lethal military gear had neither deterred Russian aggression nor created an opening for cooperation with Moscow to resolve the conflict, they argue. Kurt Volker, the Trump administration's special envoy to Ukraine, rejected the argument that lethal arms sales would provoke Russia during a 25 July 2017 interview with Current Time, a Russian-language network jointly operated by Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty and VOA. "I hear these arguments that it's somehow provocative to Russia or that it's going to embolden Ukraine to attack," he said. "These are just flat out wrong. First off, Russia is already in Ukraine, they are already heavily armed. There are more Russian tanks in there than in Western Europe combined. It is a large, large military presence. And, there's an even larger military presence surrounding Ukraine from Russian territory."

The United States will provide Ukraine with enhanced defensive capabilities, the State Department said 22 December 2017, as Kyiv battled Russian-backed separatists in the eastern part of the country. U.S. assistance is entirely defensive in nature, and as we have always said, Ukraine is a sovereign country and has a right to defend itself, the department said in a statement. ABC News reported that President Donald Trump was expected to approve the sale of anti-tank missiles to Ukraine, citing State Department sources. Any sale would need congressional approval.

The export license covered such weapons as semiautomatic and automatic firearms. It includes combat shotguns, silencers, military scopes, flash suppressors and parts. Administration officials said the equipment approved for sale was valued at $41.5 million. The Washington Post reported that there had been no approval for requests by Ukraine for heavier weapons, like Javelin anti-tank missiles.

In mid-July 2019 the White House directed a freeze on nearly $391 million in aid to Ukraine, which included $250 million of military aid that had been announced by the Defense Department in June for training, equipment, and advisory efforts for Kyiv's armed forces. In a 25 July phone call between Trump and Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskiy, Trump asked Zelenskiy to open a corruption probe into Trumps political rival, former US Vice President Joe Biden and his son, Hunter, who was on the board of a Ukrainian gas company. Trump alleged that as U.S. vice president, Joe Biden pressured Ukrainian prosecutors to halt an earlier investigation into the gas company. Zelenskiy told Trump during the July 25 phone call his country was ready to buy more Javelins," according to a White House memorandum of the phone conversation.

In a flurry of activities surrounding the call, Trump and his advisors pressured Zelenskiy to investigate Biden and his son, Hunter, and withheld U.S. aid to Ukraine as leverage. U.S. Ambassador to the European Union Gordon Sondland and former U.S. envoy to Ukraine Kurt Volker drafted a statement in August committing that country to open an investigation involving Biden. Another U.S. diplomat, Bill Taylor, said he believed Its crazy to withhold security assistance for help with a political campaign.

On October 3, 2019 the US State Department made a determination approving a possible Foreign Military Sale to Ukraine for one hundred fifty (150) Javelin missiles and related equipment and support for an estimated cost not to exceed $39.2 million. The Government of Ukraine has requested to buy one hundred fifty (150) Javelin missiles and ten (10) Javelin Command Launch Units (CLUs). Also included are training devices, transportation, support equipment, technical data and publications, personnel training and training equipment, U.S. government, engineering, technical, and logistics support services, and other related elements of logistics support tools and test equipment; support equipment; publications and technical documentation; spare and repair parts; equipment training and training devices; U.S. Government and contractor technical, engineering and logistics support services; and other related elements of logistical, sustainment, and program support. The total estimated cost is not to exceed $39.2 million.

This proposed sale will contribute to the foreign policy and national security of the United States by improving the security of Ukraine. The Javelin system will help Ukraine build its long-term defense capacity to defend its sovereignty and territorial integrity in order to meet its national defense requirements. Ukraine will have no difficulty absorbing this system into its armed forces.




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