1295-1578 Lan Na - Independent Kingdom
|1. Phaya Mangrai||B.E. 1839-1854 (A.D. 1295-1311)|
|2. Phaya Chai Songkhram||B.E. 1854-1868 (A.D. 1311-1325)|
|3. Phaya Saen Phoo||B.E. 1868-1877 (A.D. 1325-1332)|
|4. Phaya Khamfoo||B.E. 1877-1879 (A.D. 1332-1336)|
|5. Phaya Phayoo||B.E. 1879-1898 (A.D. 1336-1355)|
|6. Phaya Kue Na||B.E. 1898-1928 (A.D. 1355-1384)|
|7. Phaya Saen Muangma||B.E. 1928-1944 (A.D. 1384-1401)|
|8. Phaya Sam Fangkaen||B.E. 1944-1984 (A.D. 1401-1441)|
|9. Phaya Tilokaraja||B.E. 1984-2030 (A.D. 1441-1486)|
|10. Phaya Yod Chiang Rai||B.E. 2030-2038 (A.D. 1486-1495)|
|11. Phaya Kaeo (Phra Muang Kaeo)||B.E. 2038-2068 (A.D. 1495-1525)|
|12. Phaya Ket (Muang Ketklao, first time)||B.E. 2068-2081 (A.D. 1525-1538)|
|13. Thao Sai (Thao Sai Kham)||B.E. 2081-2086 (A.D. 1538-1543)|
|14. Phaya Ket (second time)||B.E. 2086-2088 (A.D. 1543-1545)|
|15. Phra Nang Chiraprabha||B.E. 2088-2089 (A.D. 1545-1546)|
|16. Phra Chaijetthadhiraj||B.E. 2089-2090 (A.D. 1546-1547)|
|17. Thao Mae Ku (Mekuti Suddhiwong)||B.E. 2094-2107 (A.D. 1547-1564)|
|18. Phra Nang Visuddhidevi.||B.E. 2107-2121 (A.D. 1564-1578)|
Founded in 1296 by King Mengrai, Chiang Mai succeeded Chiang Rai as the Capital of Lanna Kingdom. King Mengrai was a powerful and successful ruler and Lanna prospered under his rule (1259 to 1317). He formed a great friendship with King Ramkhamhaeng of Sukhothai and King King Ngam Muang of Phayao and enjoyed considerable support from these allies in the face of the southward Mongol invasions which caused so much upheaval in Asia during 13th the century.
The Chinese invaded the whole of the southern country. They conquered al1 the States up to Chieng Mai. Here they laid siege to the capital. The Chieng Mai ruler proposed to the Chinese Commander that they should each build a pagoda, and whichever side had first finished should be declared the victor and receive the submission of the other. This was agreed to, and a day and night were allotted to the work. The Chieng Mai people built their pagoda of mats covered with mud, and so made an erection very rapidly which looked solid and substantial from a distance. The Chinamen laboured with earth and bricks in the usual way. They had made but little progress towards a pagoda, and when morning dawned they saw the completed work of their opponents. The leader and his troops were terrified at what seemed to them a miracle. They broke up their camp in haste and retreated northwards to Mong Yawng. The beginning of the Chinese pagoda may be seen at Chieng Mai and is known as Ku Haw to this day.
According to another account of this affair, an army of Chinese once appeared before this town much too strong for the inhabitants to cope with; and they had recourse to a stratagem which, though not the first time called into play, proved successful and the means of saving the place. It was agreed that each party should erect a pagoda of a certain height, the hti, or umbrella, at the top of which should be distinctly seen by the other, and whichever was first finished the party who erected it was to be considered as the conquerors, and thus bloodshed would be avoided. The time fixed on for this trial of numbers was short. The Siamese found a high mound of earth, the trees in the town concealing it, and merely raised some brickwork at the top to support the hti which was placed on it; whereas the Chinese, who were far more numerous, built a regular pagoda of brick, which they finished within the prescribed period, with the exception of putting up the hti; but on seeing the one in the town towering above the trees, they were satisfied the Zimmeers were too numerous, and at once retraced their steps. Whatever foundation there be for the story, the pagoda is still called the Chinese pagoda, and has a Chinese name Utaut given it after the commander of the expedition. It differs totally in from from any other, consisting of five round balls of masonry, raised on a square pedastal, each diminishing in size towards the top.
By the 14th Century Siam, Zimme, Cambodia, Burmah, and Pegu became so mixed up in constant warfare that events rendered whole regions of a most fertile country nearly desolate, and were fast destroying each other in constant, senseless, and most ruthless warfare. The Siamese empire may be said to have commenced at the founding of Ayuthia in 1350. In 1306 the King of Martaban and Pegu threw off his vassalage to the Mau empire, quarrelled with the Mau King of Zimme, and added his country, together with Tavoy and Tenasserim, to his dominions. By 1330 the Siamese had taken the two latter provinces from the Peguans. The Zimme Shans must have thrown off the yoke before 1350, for in that year mention is made of their having ravaged the Peguan dominions as far as the Beeling River. In 1382-84, five years after its last attack on Cambodia, Siam warred against Zimme, and carried away many captives. During the absence of the Siamese army at Zimme in 1384, Cambodia conquered several towns, and led six thousand Siamese into captivity. In 1430 Siam again pillaged Zimme, and brought away twelve thousand of its inhabitants.
Chiang Mai and the greater Lanna Kingdom reached is zenith under King Tilokarat Tilokarat in the middle of the 16th century, expanding east as far as present day Nan Province, south to Sukhothai and as far north as the present Myanmar/China border. It was during his reign that Chedi Luang was completed, towering an astonishing 96 metres. Despite an earthquake in 1545, which brought it down to 42 metres, it remained the tallest structure in the city until the 1950s.
In 1563 an embassy was sent by Pegu to demand one of the four white elephants possessed by the King of Siam, and, on an evasive answer being given, the Pegu army attacked Zimme, whose ruler refused to allow the army to enter its towns, and, after besieging and taking them, proceeded to Ayuthia, sacked it, placed one of the sons of the King on the throne, took many prisoners, and returned to Pegu, where a rebellion among the Shan and Talaing, Talain or Peguans, had broken out. This was quelled with great cruelty. The Peguan force was withdrawn from Zimme in 1565. In 1568 Siam, with the aid of Vien-Chang, or Laos, rebelled, and conquered Zimme. The Peguans returned, captured Ayuthia, by the help of treachery, and placed a Zimme chief on the throne. Operations against Laos proved unsuccessful, and the troops were recalled in 1570. In 1579 Zimme tried in vain to shake off the yoke of Pegu.
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