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Production of the Yak-38 Forger began in 1975 making it the world's second operational VSTOL aircraft, after the Harrier series. In the USSR, the first VTOL jet estimations were carried out in 1947, the idea was based on the use of the rotary nozzle. At the end of 1950 it was connected to the OKB-115 Design Bureau, which experts have proposed the Yak-104 project with two up-and-boosters (PMD) 1600 kg thrust and one lifting motor (PD) 600 kg thrust. Later vthe Yak-28VV fighter-bomber project with two jet engines, as well as attack aircraft with two jet engines and lift fan in the wing, equipped with a gas-dynamic drive system. Exotic solutions were dictated by the high proportion of the engines of the time, constituted the 0.2-0.25 kg / kg, whereas to ensure acceptable performance characteristics of the aircraft, this option had to be brought up to at least 0.08-0.1 kg / kg. In the end, it was decided to create a prototype single-seat fighter-bomber for the study of flight technical and operating issues, and in the future to move to more serious projects.

Four VTOL aircraft, the designation Yak-36 ("B", the Yak-B) were built at the end of 1962, which was preceded by a long-term testing of the individual systems and components, and flight studies on the experimental apparatus "Turbolet". Yak-36 was powered by two jet engines R27-300 thrust of 5,000 kg, with rotating nozzles in the area of the center of gravity. For transient and hovering Yak-36 was administered via jet rudders, nozzles which are in the rear fuselage, on the wingtips and the front bar. Yak-36 was the subject of numerous studies on the stability and controllability of the VTOL, the impact of the gas jet to the surface and the aircraft structure, the influence of the reflected streams on the behavior of the aircraft and the operation of the power plant, the efficiency of jet rudders, and more.

The work took a lot of time, so hurry and could not, therefore, the first flight of the full profile (vertical take-off, flight in a circle and vertical landing) was performed only March 24, 1966 the aircraft tests conducted Yu.A.Garnaev, later took the baton in .G.Muhin. Despite the fact that the air parade in Domodedovo in July 1967 Yak-36 was demonstrated with suspended breadboard blocks NAR, he was highly experimental aircraft and the proposal OKB-115 on the construction of a small series of these machines to study the issues on ships where they are based not It found support among the military. To combat missions a new aircraft required, and the design of such a machine, which received the original designation Yak-36M, launched in 1967.

Yakovlev insisted on the creation of VTOL aircraft with a single lifting and sustainer engine for "Harrier" type, but the deputy chief designer S.G.Mordovin considered it necessary to apply a combined propulsion system of one jet engines and one or two lift engines. This choice was motivated by the fact that the finished engine, suitable for use on a VTOL aircraft as a single power plant, at that time was not, and it prevented the rapid creation of numerous difficulties, mainly organizational. (It is worth remembering that when you create a PMD "Pegasus-1" for the experimental aircraft R.1127, 'Harrier' predecessor, the British faced with problems of the same kind. Allow them managed with great difficulty, despite the fact that the "Pegasus-1 "was established on the basis of units of production engines in record time - just over 2 years)

Application is not enough power would lead to the same problems, which were characteristic of the Yak-36:. the inevitable drop in thrust due to gas recirculation and air flow the jet control system, as well as the effect of the suction force becomes so great that it is not allowed to take off vertically, even with minimal combat load. The concept of the initiative group Mordovina eventually won, though it took a long time: the decision of the CC CPSU and the USSR on the establishment of the Yak-36M appeared immediately after the meeting of the NTS MAP in December 1967, and only 25 January 1969 Air Force Commander K .A.Vershinin approved TTT to a light attack aircraft Yak-36M vertical takeoff and landing with lifting and sustainer engine R-27B-300 and RD-lifting 36-35FV.

According to the TTT, the Yak-36M was designed "... for air support combat operations of ground forces in the tactical and nearest operational depth of the enemy's position (up to 150 kilometers from the front line), as well as basing aircraft in the" 1123 "project ships to destroy surface ships and onshore facilities in maritime operations and management of visual aerial reconnaissance. The main objective is the destruction of the aircraft moving, stationary onshore and offshore facilities of the enemy in terms of visibility. In addition, the aircraft is to be used to combat air targets such as military transport aircraft and helicopters, as well as to combat AWACS aircraft and helicopters and anti-submarine aircraft."

Layout vertically taking off the deck of attack aircraft Yak-36M it was built in March 1970 and the first copy of the plane - 15 April. Creating a car accompanied by working off their systems at different stands: crane cable, stand jet control, stand the forces and moments. Stand powerplant was a full-scale aircraft fuselage with engines and related systems, which was tested in the wind tunnel T-102 and suspension under the Tu-16. The first free hovering in the Yak-36M test pilot V. Mukhin fulfilled on 22 September. October 15 was built a second instance, are being tested on the stand of the forces and moments to relieve jet control characteristics. The test results below were installed on the fuselage The exhaust gas guide ribs and the nozzle front PD rotated by 15 against the flight, increased efficiency of the wing jet rudders, and to improve the management efficiency in the longitudinal channel used rods difference PD and PMD. December 2, 1970 Mukhin fulfilled the Yak-36M first flight of an aircraft.

With access to the testing of the 3rd sample and a reference sample for a series of testing and joined M.S.Deksbah O.G.Kononenko. After several test phases, which performs vertical takeoffs and landings, hovering, flying an aircraft and testing of transients, February 25, 1972 Michael Deksbah flew at full profile. In April 1972, production tests were completed, and entered a phase of "A" state joint tests in Akhtubinsk. During the test did not lose a single aircraft (while as of six experienced "Harriers" three broken), they have been largely successful, paving the way to new aircraft in the series and on the deck of the ship. But before "vertikalka" took their places on the decks of the heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser "1143" project ( "Kiev"), tests were carried out on the ground stand in LII (full-scale compartment of the ship's hull with a portion of the flight deck) and ASW cruiser "Moskva". The first landing on the deck of "Moscow", has passed for it in Feodosiya Bay, made November 18, 1972 Michael Deksbah, he also performed on November 22 "full" from the deck. The logbook entry cruisers appeared in that day: "Birthday carrier-based aircraft."

In 1974, at the air base in the town of Saki formation of the training center of naval aviation, whose task was to train pilots on Yak-36M. At the airport was equipped with special platforms for testing of vertical takeoffs and landings, and next to the main GDP build additional, metal-coated and the contour of the flight deck of aircraft carrier "Kiev". The preparatory phase of training was held in Akhtubinsk and scheduled retraining in Salem began in December 1975, when he entered into operation the first instance of the "SPARK" Yak-36MU and with Saratov aircraft factory started coming serial Yak-36M. The first front pilots, mastered flying on the new technology, steel F.G.Matkovsky, Yu.N.Kozlov and G.L.Kovalev. The best of them was Teoctist Matkovskiy: appointed commander of the first regiment of the assault on the Yak-36M, it was faster than other hard way "taming" VTOL, August 19, 1975 carried out a "full profile" on land, and April 6, 1976 landed on aircraft carrier "Kiev" deck. By May 1976 admission to the flight graduated six pilots.

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Page last modified: 03-10-2016 17:21:52 ZULU