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City of Voronezh

The phrase "bomb Voronezh" has become a staple of the Russian political lexicon, a reference to what Kremlin critics call Russia's penchant for responding to Western sanctions with punitive measures that end up harming its own citizens. But after Russian lawmakers in April 2018 proposed banning numerous U.S. goods and services in response to fresh U.S. sanctions, even Russian state conglomerate Rostec invoked the figurative shelling of the stand-in for Anytown, Russia, 500 kilometers south of Moscow. "You can't respond to sanctions by bombing Voronezh. Retaliatory measures must be implemented very prudently so as not to harm the interests of Russian industry," Rostec executive Viktor Kladov was quoted by the Russian newspaper RBK as saying.

Voronezh is the cradle of long-range aviation in Russia. Its founder is the first commander of the Long-Range Aviation and the first aviation general, the commander of the Ilya Muromets airship squadron Mikhail Shidlovsky. In addition, it was at the Voronezh airfield that the first TB-1 heavy bombers were based in the 1930s. The city is also known as the «birthplace» of the Airborne Forces. The first airborne assault was made in the sky over Voronezh on August 2, 1930. 12 parachutist from Voronezh laid the formation of the military paratroopers.

Voronezh, known as “The Cradle of the Russian Fleet”, owes this name to the fact that in the 17th century Peter the Great built his famous fleet here (first fleet ever built in Russia), which changed the course of Russian history. Goto Predestinatsia, the first Russian ship of the line, was built in Voronezh in 1700. In the past, Russia was completely denied salt water. As soon as I leaned out a little, the enemies were upset. It was incredibly difficult to cut a window to Europe. Every arshin of the coastal land, although it was our primordially Slavic, had to be mined with battle. Peter I was forced to build ships among swamps and shallow waters in the north-west, cut down the ship forest in the center of Russia, near Voronezh, and there, hiding from villainous curiosity, prepare for battles for sacred lands.

Legend has it that, starting to build the Russian Navy in Voronezh, Peter the Great ordered the country's most beautiful girls to be brought to the city. The constructors fell in love, got married, and stayed in Voronezh. The beautiful women had daughters that were just as beautiful. It is now traditional to hold an annual beauty contest on the eve of International Women's Day.

The City of Voronezh, founded in 1584, “the city of students”, the cultural capital of The Black Earth Region, is large and bustling, yet has the charm of an old provincial town. Conveniently located within an overnight train journey from Moscow, Voronezh is the best destination for those who are looking for a truly Russian experience. Along with a wealth of fine architecture, cultural, and shopping opportunities, is the possibility to escape to one of the many green spaces around and just outside the city.

During the Great Patriotic War, Voronezh was the scene of fierce fighting and was almost completely destroyed by the Nazis. 92% was in ruins and what was left was turned into a huge minefield. However, by 1950 the city was rebuilt and many historic buildings were recreated or restored to their original beauty. During the Great Patriotic War from July 7, 1942 to January 25, 1943, Voronezh spent 212 days in a partial German occupation. During this period, the right bank of the river Voronezh was captured by the troops of Hitler's Germany. The left was held by Soviet troops. The front line divided the city into two parts. During the occupation, Voronezh suffered significant damage. According to experts, 92% of all city residential buildings were destroyed. Voronezh were liberated by troops of the 60th Army, commanded by General Ivan Chernyakhovsky.

Construction workers were in great demand in Voronezh. By the year 1950, a total of over 13,500 workers were employed in Voronezh construction projects, but more were needed. In 1949, about 2,000 families moved into new apartments, and 135 more large apart-ment buildings were under construction. During the first 7 months of 1950, 64 million rubles were spent for housing construction; 20,000 square meters of housing have been finished. Two schools, two hospitals, three polyclinics, nine children's homes, two technical schools, and other buildings were under construc-tion. A new streetcar line was built. The city was restored at a rapid pace by 1950. In 2008, Voronezh was awarded with the honorary title «City of Military Glory» for courage, fortitude and mass heroism of the city's defenders in the struggle for freedom and independence of the Motherland.

The city is the kingpin of south-east Russia, within which is concentrated the lion's share of the region's industry and commerce, not to mention its steadily growing population. Just over 1 million people live in Voronezh itself and around 1.5 million within an hour's drive of the city. Although Voronezh is situated in the heart of Russia, 550km from Moscow, in a particularly fertile agricultural area known as the Black Soil Region, it is an industrial city and is famous for its aeronautical and space industry. Voronezh is home to over 30 higher education establishments providing training for over 120,000 students in various specializations. Every 20th student in Voronezh is a foreigner.

The Voronezh Region is one of Russia’s biggest industrial centres. Industrial output accounts for about 20% of the regional GDP. Its major sectors are the food industry, electricity production, the chemical industry, manufacturing of electrical, electronic and optical equipment, non-metal mineral products, transport equipment including airplanes and fixtures, metals and metal products, machinery and equipment production. The region’s raw materials serve as a basis for the construction industry. The Voronezh Region is the leader in mineral fertiliser, car tyre and chemical rubber production in the Central Federal District.

The unique mixture of natural beauty, man-made wonders, and a relaxed atmosphere, has created one of Russia's loveliest cities. The city centre is a well-balanced blend of old and new. Elaborate 18th century buildings rub shoulders, quite happily, with newly developed modern shopping complexes. The layout is compact and straightforward, ideally suited to exploration on foot. Within a stone's throw of the busy center, are large areas of peaceful parkland, and beautiful countryside.

Admiralteyskaya Naberezhnaya, constructed to commemorate the 300th anniversary of the Russian Navy, is a lovely and beautiful place for a walk around the city, with the old church where Peter the Great christened new ships, and an excellent view of the left bank of the Reservoir. Lenin Square is the main square of the city, with a monument to Vladimir Lenin in the centre. Every winter a huge New Year Tree is placed in the square.

Voronezh lies on the border between the forest and meadow region of middle Russia and the southern steppes; the forests disappear rapidly towards the south, and those which stood on the upper tributaries of the Don, and were used for shipbuilding, had now been almost entirely destroyed by around 1900. The Don traverses Voronezh from N. to S.E., draining it for more than 400 miles; it was long an important channel for the the export of corn, tallow and other raw produce, as well as for the import of wood, floated down from the north. Its tributary the Voronezh is also navigated, and the Bityug and Khoper, both left-hand affluents of the Don,intersect the territory. Many other small streams flowing into the Don, but the influence of the dry steppes makes itself felt; there are no lakes, and marshes persist only in the valleys. The climate is continental, and the mean temperature at the town of Voronezh is 42-7° F., that of January is as low as 8-3°, and that of July as high as 74.2°.

The central agricultural region, comprising the the governments of Kursk, Orel, Tula, Riazan, Tambov, and Voronezh, occupied the northern portion of the basin of the river Don, the southern portion of the basin of the river Oka and parts of the basins of the Volga and Dniepr. The lowest situated are the governments of Voronezh and Riazan. The character of the locality is a level plain, intersected by gullies. The soil consists of black earth, which is, however, almost universally manured. The climate is continental; rains are less frequent than in the west of Russia, resulting sometimes in droughts which injure the crops. The quantity of forest land is inconsiderable, and diminishes rapidly towards the south.

Before the Revolution, in the steppe part of the government of Voronezh artificial pasture land is more extensive, and, in consequence, a corresponding development exists of sheep and horse breeding. In the northern part the winter grain cultivated is rye, and in the southern wheat. The spring grains are oats and buck-wheat, and, more rarely, barley, peas, and millet. Flax and hemp are cultivated everywhere, but not in equal quantities. Flax is grown in the eastern part of the region principally for seed, and hemp in the governments of Orel and Kursk. The sun-flower is grown in large quantities for its seed, which is pressed for oil, the centre of the industry being the government of Voronezh, where more than 270,000 acres are sown with sun-flowers. The village of Alexeyevka, in the government of Voronezh, is specially noted for the cultivation of the sun-flower.

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Page last modified: 13-09-2021 17:22:49 ZULU