The Tu-204 has been manufactured since 1990 at the Aviastar SP plant in Ulianovsk and since 1996 at the Gorbunov KAPO (Tu-214 version) in Kazan. The Tu-214 is a mid-regional passenger aircraft developed by ASTC Tupolev. Aircraft issued at the Kazan Aviation Production Association (KAPA) are designated Tu-214. The first batch of Tu-204-200 (Tu-214) was launched into production in the second half of 1994. The pane is a further development version of Tu-204-100, differing increased takeoff weight and longer range with full payload. Foreign counterparts are the Boeing-757 and Airbus A321.
The year 2015 marked 20 years since the beginning of the operation of aircraft with PS-90A engine by the squadron of the government. At that time, ther were 21 aircraft with Perm PS-90A engines: 11 Tu-214 of different modifications (4 Tu-214, 3 Tu-214SR-transponder aircraft; 2 Tu-214PU cabin aircraft; 2 Tu-214SUS aircraft with a "special connection node"), 8 Il-96-300 different versions, and two Tu-204-300A.
The Tu-204 is built on the cantilever low aerodynamic configuration. Swept high aspect ratio wing formed supercritical profiles. To reduce induced drag aerodynamic wing given a negative twist and fitted vertical ending. Lift consists of a double-slotted flaps and slats along the front edge. Landing gear is retractable, tricycle, with a nose strut. The power plant consists of two PS-90A turbofan. Crew Cab is equipped with color displays and central Y-shaped handles with small strokes.
- TU-214 is a TU-204-100 upgraded version with takeoff weight increased up to 110.75t. The aircraft is certified against AP-25 Russian Airworthiness Rules. VIP version is provided. The Tu-214 aircraft is a modified variant of TU-204-100, differing in the increased take-off weight and the greater range of flight with a full pay load. The cargo modification of TU204-200 aircraft with a side cargo door sized 3,4 ? 2,18 m. allows transportation of 14 pallets in its cargo space, and in the bottom of cargo compartments up to 12 containers LD3-46. The maximal payload is 29,3 tons , and range of flight with payload makes 4800 km. The aircraft are produced in Kazan aircraft works association (KAPO), have model name TU-214.
- TU-214F is a TU-214 freight version with cargo capacity up to 30 t.
- TU-224F (alternatively Tu-204-320) is a 166 seat shortened developments of the Tu-204, powered by the RB211-535E4
Kazan Federal State Unitary Enterprise Gorbunov - one of the oldest aircraft manufacturing centers in the country. Aircraft plant in Kazan was founded in 1932 Before World War II there produced aircraft DB-A, Pe-2, Pe-8, Li-2, etc. And in November 1941, its territory evacuated Moscow Aviation Plant named after S. P.Gorbunova (GAZ-22), the first in the country has mastered the production of metal aircraft ANT-3, ANT-4, ANT-6, ANT-40 Tupolev design. December 26, 1941 both of these enterprises to integrate into one, giving it the name Gorbunov.
Thus, the merged tradition and experience of two leading aircraft plants in the country - Kazan and Moscow. During the war Kazan released more than 10,000 dive bombers Pe-2, as well as about 80 long-range bombers Pe-8. In the postwar period there were built heavy combat and transport vehicles - Tu-4, Tu-16, Tu-22 and Tu-22M, Tu-160, Tu-104, Il-62M. Although the construction of the aircraft factory designed primarily military aircraft in the last decade of the last century had to develop broader issue of civil aircraft. Today, the company places great hopes on the production of medium-haul passenger aircraft Tu-214 (Government Decree on the deployment of this work at the CAPO adopted in 1992).
The Tu-214- first flew on March 21, 1996. The Tu-214 is an improved version of the medium-range Tu-204 (in connection with which formerly bore the designation Tu-204-200). On key economic and LTH machine meets Boeing 757 and Airbus A-320. Ship is equipped with two turbofan engines PS-90A and can carry up to 212 passengers. Cruising speed of the aircraft is 810-850 km / h, the practical range - 7200 km, the specific fuel consumption - 18.3 g per passenger kilometer - a very high figure for today.
The aircraft was certified by the International Aviation Register of December 29, 2000 (ST198 Tu-214), its type design complies with the certification basis SB-124 on December 28, 2000 and allows operation with a takeoff weight of 110,750 kg. This dramatically increased the interest in the liner from airlines supporting long-distance lines. Increase the flight range to 7,200 km with 25,200 kg payload enables efficient, fully loaded, operate Tu-214 on the Moscow-Khabarovsk and other routes increased length. No accident that the first buyer liner became the Khabarovsk airline "DalAvia" (Dal Avia).
In May 2001, Far aviators on the "classical" leasing scheme was transferred to the first Tu-214 with tail number 64502. Previously built aircraft was signed five-way agreement between the government of Tatarstan, the administration of Khabarovsk Krai, CAPO, by "DalAvia" and Moscow ZAO " financial leasing company "(FLC). Last acted as lessor, for the pilot project which attracted budget Tatarstan and Khabarovsk Krai.
The act of acceptance of the new airliner was very solemnly symbolic key to the aircraft was handed over to the crew the President of Tatarstan. After the first Tu-214 "DalAvia" and received a second car (tail number 64503). In 2004 they were joined by a third plane (tail number 64507), whose design takes into account all the improvements due to the additional requirements of operators. Evaluating the effectiveness of the first years of operation, the Tu-214, the general director of "DalAvia" Paul Sevastyanov said that all technical specifications for the design of the aircraft sustained.
By December 2004, the total flight time "two hundred and fourteenth" in "DalAvia" amounted to 13,768 hours, and the average one raid aircraft exceeded 200 hours during three years of operation the first two "Far" Tu-214 completed in 1512 return flights. Including 1262 - on domestic flights and 250 - at international, having transported a total of over 190,000 passengers. It was possible to provide a high level of aviation safety. With a total of about 10,000 hours raid took place just two of failure: failure detected on the ground electrically operated valve air sampling for SLE and in flight refused hydraulic GP-26. Thus, in one incident accounted for more than 5000 hours of flight time.
From year to year and improved economic performance of the machine. Being unprofitable in the first year of operation, in the results of 2003 the Tu-214 has brought the company "DalAvia" profit (and this despite the huge costs of creating a database of technical and flight manual!). By November 2004 CAPO issued seven serial Tu-214. In addition to these three machines are in operation in the near future the airline will receive two more.
The Tu-214 is flown on nonstop routes from Khabarovsk to Moscow, Japan, China, Singapore, South Korea. At the stage of development - the new route connecting Khabarovsk with St. Petersburg, Kiev, Samara, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. Airline actively using the Tu-214 for international scheduled and charter flights. If in 2001 the new machines was made only two paired international flights, while in 2002 their number reached 92. In just the first three years of operation of Tu-214 "DalAvia" made 214 pairs of regular flights linking Khabarovsk cities: Niigata and Aomori (Japan), Seoul (South Korea) and Guangzhou (China). According to representatives of airlines, on line Khabarovsk-Moscow-Khabarovsk use of Tu-214 instead of IL-62M (comparable passenger) saves 50 tons of aviation fuel.
Another operator Tu-214 - STC "Russia" - acquired three aircraft. New Sun operate regular international flights from "Sheremetyevo-2" in New Delhi, Mumbai (India), Tel Aviv (Israel) and Ulan Bator (Mongolia), and make flights from Istanbul (Turkey) in Khiva (Uzbekistan). Exercise and charter flights to Novosibirsk and Adler. In this intensively exploited liners. Thus, airlines Tu-214 "Russian" with the tail number 64504 flown in November 2004, including 352 customers include liner - the company Aviast Air (three passenger Tu-214 and Tu-one freight 214S), Kras Air, Transaero.
Improvements on the aircraft continue. Currently developing an improved version of the liner-150-seat Tu-214D, equipped with three extra fuel tanks and having a practical range of up to 9200 km. Another direction of evolution is a cargo version of the aircraft, the Tu-214S equipped with a side cargo door and capable of taking on board the standard containers and pallets.
If desired, the customer can be delivered Tu-234 engines with foreign production - RB211-535E4, etc. Demand of the local market in the aircraft Tu-214 is characterized by the fact that 75% of the Russian civil aircraft almost worn-out and needs to be replaced as soon as possible. According to the Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation, by 2010 half of the park's most "working" aircraft - Tu-154, Tu-154T and Tu-134 - will be charged. Just last year, Russia withdrew from the airline operating 170 aircraft, flying off his sentence. Approximately the same number of aircraft stopped flying in 2005.
Meanwhile, the fleet was constantly growing passenger traffic in Russia. Moreover, this process is fast enough. Russian air carriers operated only a few dozen aircraft 4th generation of domestic production (IL-96, Tu-204, Tu-214 and Il-114 and An-38), fully compliant with international requirements. They fly to 12 airlines and operates only seven per cent of all traffic. The remaining aircraft are engineering 2nd and 3rd generation or "foreign aircraft." In these circumstances, the need for Russia for aircraftsuch as the Tu-214 is estimated at 50 units per year. The total volume of the Russian market could reach $ 1.1 billion, and European - $ 2.5 billion Tu-214 has the potential to take its rightful place in the Russian airline. However, this largely depends on state of the domestic aviation industry, there is still a high potential.
The contract for the supply of five Tu-214 in the interest of "Transaero" with an option for another five machines of JSC "Finance Leasing Company" (FLC) and KAPO was signed in February 2005. At that time it was the largest in the history of Russian civil aircraft contract. But it was not all so simple. "Transaero", was required to purchase or to lease at least five new aircraft Tu-204/214 in the framework of the investment agreement with the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation shall be exempt from customs duties on the import of foreign aircraft. It seemed like the government intended to maintain the domestic aircraft industry.
Delivery of the first Tu-214 scheduled for December 2005, four - on the 2006 th, and five - in 2008. However, "Transaero" received the first Tu-214 in April 2007, the second - in November 2008, the third - in October 2009. The next Tu-214 the airline intended to get to the end of 2010.
But on 13 April 2012 the President of JSC "United Aircraft Corporation" (UAC) Alexei Fedorov said that because of the high cost of the platform of the Tu-214 decided to no longer build commercial jets at the base, leaving only Special Modifications [spetsmodifikatsii]. However, "Transaero" continued to say that the Tu-214 was an excellent aircraft, only the factory support was no good.
In February 2012 General Director of "JSC Transaero" Olga Pleshakova said to Komsomolskaya Pravda "The fact that our aviation industry is unfortunately not able to establish mass production of the Tu-214, in my opinion, due to the fact that this project has not been a breakthrough. It was based on the former Soviet backlog and no longer met the needs of modern times. We, frankly, an effort to support the domestic aviation industry, have ordered 10 such aircraft."
Transaero Airlines CEO Olga Pleshakova resigned and became chairman of the board. Her husband, former board chairman Alexander Pleshakov, remained as a board member and managing director. Transaero said the management appointments were decided at the carrier’s board meeting on Aug. 31, and are not related to the acquisition by Aeroflot announced 01 September 2015.
By 2013 Aeroflot and Transaero, Russia’s two leading airlines, flew mostly Boeing and Airbus planes, with just a handful of Russian-made Ilyushin Il-96-300, Tupolev Tu-214, and Sukhoi Superjet 100-95 aircraft in service. The Russian civil aircraft industry faced massive competition from Airbus and Boeing, which had received orders for 734 and 692 airliners each so farin 2013. China also announced it intends to start producing its own airliner, the Comac C919, which will compete head-on with the MC-21.
Many Russian airlines never ordered aircraft from domestic producers. The bulk of Russian-built planes, even relatively new ones like the Tu-204 and Tu-214, seriously lagged behind their foreign counterparts and often do not meet international standards, meaning they cannot be flown abroad.
In June 2012 Russia’s Defense Ministry issued design specifications for a patrol aircraft for the Arctic. The reason cited was the planned write-off of several dozen Il-38 and Il-38N planes of the same type while global warming is intensifying competition for the rich resources of the North Pole. There’s a need for a new long-range high-endurance patrol plane for the Arctic. The Tu-214, the A-40/42 (the world’s largest amphibian plane) and the Be-200, another amphibian, could be competing entries.
It was too early to speak of the A-42 and Be-200 seaplanes as likely entries if only because the A-42 has a patrol endurance of 12 hours at reduced speed, which is not enough to cover the Arctic distances. The Be-200 is out of the question because its range is 30% less. Moreover, seaplanes are expensive to build because they use a lot of titanium. It would be a waste using them for patrol duties. As for the passenger Tu-214, its range with passengers and baggage is 6,500 kilometers. Since passengers are an extra option on patrols, fuel reserves could be increased and range extended to 8,000-10,000 kilometers. The Il-38s and Il-38Ns currently in service are military derivatives of the Il-18 workhorse, and have a dry tank range of 9,500 kilometers.
Considering the good relations between the ministry and the United Aircraft Corporation (UAC), a passenger cargo plane could be found for conversion. But the likely candidate was the Sukhoi Superjet-100, not the Tu-214. To begin with, Sukhoi was experiencing problems with sales following the May 9 disaster in Indonesia. Second, Sukhoi was calling the shots in the UAC, while Tupolev was practically bankrupt and survived by renting out its premises. Third, the Superjet was the authorities’ pet project and a good investment destination.
|Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list|