TsKB - Central Design Bureau
As with many chapters of Soviet history, the story of the Central Design Bureau is a bit of a jumble. Although surely it played a major role in the development of Soviet aviation in the 1930s, many histories of the period entirely ignore it, while others provide little more than fragmentary glimpses of this intitution. Even the precise dates of its origins and demise are a bit opaque.
From the first days of its existence, the young Soviet Republic needed not only to fight the internal and external counterrevolution, but also to overcome the technical and economic backwardness of tsarist Russia, to improve the scientific and technical base. It was at this time that Vladimir Ilyich Lenin spoke of aviation as a powerful means of scientific and technological progress, well aware of the country's need for an air fleet. Implementation of the program of industrialization of the country made it possible to create the material foundations of the aircraft industry for the development and construction of heavy aircraft of domestic production. The design bureau, headed by AN Tupolev, in 1923 managed to create an all-metal triple-engine ANT-2.
From June 1926 to November 1931, Sergei Vladimirovich Ilyushin worked as chairman of the aircraft section of the Air Force Scientific and Technical Committee (NTC Air Force), where he studied the world experience in aircraft construction, developing tactical and technical requirements for new aircraft. Under the leadership of Ilyushin, he was able to develop technical requirements for NN planes. Polikarpova (including the U-2), A.N. Tupolev and D.G. Grigorovich. In addition, in 1930-1931, Sergei Vladimirovich worked as an assistant to the head of the Air Force Scientific Research Institute (NII VVS) in the scientific and technical part.
|# 1||Heavy aircraft||V.M. Petlyakov|
|# 2||Seaplanes||I. Pogossky (Apr 1934 - AP Golubkov)|
|# 3||Fighter and experimental||P.O.Sukhoi|
|# 5||High-speed military and passenger||A.A.Arkhangelsky|
|# 10||Torpedo boats||N.S.Nekrasov|
In 1930, at the insistence of administrative authorities, a number of previously independent and very different in design teams - the group of D.P. Grigorovich , N.N. Polikarpova , S.A. Kocherigina , A.N. Rafaelyantsa , R.L. Bartini and others - were part of a huge institution, the Central Design Bureau. Experimental aircraft in the Central Design Bureau were supposed to be built by common friendly efforts, pouring the whole world on each in turn, and thus, ahead of planned government terms.
The Soviet scientific-research institutes were intimately connected with the aircraft industry as a whole. On January 1, 1931, at the initiative of the head of the SUAI PIB. under TsAGI, a Bureau of Special Constructions (BOC) was organized under the direction of VA Chizhevsky. In 1931, the People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry decided to reorganize TsAGI. In the summer of 1931 Ilyushin filed a report on the transfer to the aviation industry, having previously secured the support of the head of the All-Union Aviation Association P.I.Baranova. In August 1931, the institute was united with the 39th plant under the KB, headed by Sergei Ilyushin. Ilyushin's report was considered, and from November 1931 he headed the design bureau of TsAGI.
This was the birth of the Central Design Bureau (TsKB), located at the plant #39 in Moscow. Its chief was appointed S.V.Ilyushin, then better known as a senior administrator, rather than as a designer. His design experience was limited to the creation of several training and sports gliders. However, Ilyushin was eager for independent work on the design of combat aircraft.
The absurd organization and reorganization of industry produced the merger of the Central Design Bureau (TsKB) and the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI). Tupolev was appointed as an assistant to Ilyushin for TsAGI and the Central Design Bureau (TsKB), but in May 1932 a new reorganization followed: the Central Design Bureau was transformed into the Experimental Aircraft Building Section (SOS), whose deputy director for TsAGI is appointed S.V.Ilyushin. The SOS included a number of units, including the design department of Tupolev.
In January 1933, the long-awaited division of TsAGI and TsKB, based on the territory of the Moscow Aviation Plant No. 39, took place. In the new Central Design Bureau, Nikolai Polikarpov became the head of the design team No. 2 specializing in fighter jets. The General Directorate of the aviation industry (GUAP) came up with the idea to collect all the aircraft designers of the country under one roof. The plan was not serial production of machines, but as if they were semi-parallel: parts, assemblies and assemblies of all machines should be manufactured simultaneously, and for final assembly, they should be supplied sequentially, so that the workshops do not stand idle, so as not to be "stuck" with machines interfering with each other. Then the planes, although different in design and experimental, can be built quickly, almost like in serial plants, and fewer skilled workers will be needed.
Hopes rested again on a simple basis: it is better to act together. It seemed like a good idea at the time. But such "intricacies" as intuition, dissimilar ideas about the aesthetics of technical solutions, how, finally, the compatibility or incompatibility of the characters of people, all were not taken into account.
When, in January 1933, TsAGI regained its former independence, the plant of experimental designs began its work. Among the first aircraft built here was a large six-engine ANT-16 / TB-4. In January 1933, at the suggestion of Ilyushin, the design department of the Experimental Construction Sector (COSOS) of TsAGI reorganized Aviation Plant No. 39 of the VR for the Central Design Bureau (TsKB). Menzhinsky, whose chief (and part-time deputy director of the plant) appointed Sergei Vladimirovich, and the design department of TsAGI for the development of heavy aircraft.
|# 1||ground attack and scouts||S.A.Kocherigin|
|# 3||experimental designs||V.A.Chizhevsky|
|# 5||sea planes||G.M.Beriev|
|# 6||static testing||P.M.Kreyson|
Six months later, when the collective of the Central Design Bureau was separated into independent KB design teams, N.N. Polikarpova, V.A. Chizhevsky and G.M. Beriyeva, Ilyushin led the newly formed brigade No. 3, which in September 1935 was transformed into the design bureau of the aviation plant No. 39.
Tupolev believed that: "In the USSR, dwarf units, even if headed by talented designers, will not achieve much, we need powerful organizations like KOSOS, which are two or three in number." In those years, he believed that these could be strong bureaus created around Grigorovich and Polikarpov.
A flurry of repression later hit the aviation designers and specialists. October 21, 1937 A. Tupolev was arrested. He was accused of leading the supposedly created "Russian-Fascist Party", which aimed at sabotage in the aircraft industry, and also that he was a French spy recruited back in 1924. A trial on Tupolev was held only on May 28, 1940. He was sentenced to 15 years in prison and 5 years disqualification and confiscation of property. The famous designers V. Petlyakov, V. Myasyshchev, R. Bartini, I. Neman, and the armed A. Nadashkevich were arrested and convicted.
In ten years from 1927 to 1937, Tupolev's bureau created 10 large-scale machines for the country that met the requirements of the Air Force and GVF, including IL-4, R-3, R-7, TB-1, TV-ZSB, RD (ANT-25), TB-7 (ANT-42), ANT-9, and ANT-14. During these same years N.N. Polikarpov released - I-5, U-2, R-5 and I-16, that is, five types, Ilyushin IL-2 and IL-4 design bureau, that is, two types, and Bartini - EP-2, that is one.
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