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TOS-2 Tosochka [Socks] 220mm MRL

The Tosochka BM-2, also known as Armata TOS-2, is a missile launcher variant intended as the replacement for the Russian Army TOS-1 Buratino. TOS-2 (the R&D work ‘Tosochka’) is a derivative of the TOS-1A ‘Solntsepyok’ heavy flamethrower system with improved performance characteristics. Unlike its predecessor, it is based on the Ural vehicle with increased carrying capacity and cross-country ability. It has an increased launch range for unguided rockets. Aiming, shooting and fire control of the TOS-2 are fully automated. The machine is equipped with a crane-manipulator, so the system does not need a transport-loading machine.

The heavy flamethrower systems are intended to destroy light-armor vehicles, incapacitation of personnel deployed on open spaces or in shelters, initiate fires and smokescreens by smoke/incendiary munitions. The systems are armed with fuel-air explosive munitions that use spraying of combustible material and explosion of the formed gas cloud.

The TOS-1A Solntsepek and TOS-2 Tosochka heavy flamethrower systems were shown to the general public for the first time on 25 June 2020 in the parade on Red Square in Moscow on the 75th Anniversary of Victory Day. At the International Military-Technical Forum “Army-2021”, subsidiaries of the Rostec State Corporation showcased the Remote Mine Laying System (ISDM) and the Heavy Flamethrower System (TOS-2). Tosochka is the successor of the famous TOS-1 Pinocchio and TOS-1A Solntsepek flamethrower systems.

Since TOS-2 system operates in close tactical zones, it is equipped with electronic protection system against high-precision weapons. It also carries state-of-the-art navigation equipment, such as satellite positioning and an automated fire control system, which allows its deployment at the unprepared firing positions.

At the word "flamethrower" presents a picture of the Second World War: a fighter with a knapsack, pouring a burning jet of enemy positions. However, "fiery science" has gone far ahead. Back in the 1970s, it became clear that releasing a fire mixture under pressure was already archaic. It is much more practical to deliver fire to the target, like classic shells - remotely.

The invention of thermobaric projectiles was decisive, that is, those that use both temperature and pressure as a damaging effect at once. In the 1980s, the Soviet military authorities were impressed by the power of such ammunition: in terms of impact, they resembled the explosion of a small nuclear charge. The first TOS was installed on a tracked chassis, thus obtaining a hybrid of a tank and multiple rocket launchers.

In real combat practice, the TOS-1 "Pinocchio" system was tested at the end of the Afghan war. Upon contact with the target, the contents of the projectile scattered through the air, creating an explosive mixture that was undermined. One volley destroyed all life on an area of three square kilometers. In mountainous areas, the effect of thermobaric shells became even more significant, leading the Mujahideen into a real panic.

Heavy multiple launch rocket systems, like other flamethrower devices, were assigned to the troops of radiation, chemical and biological protection (RCBZ). The next step was the creation of a modification of TOS-1A "Solntsepek". It reduced the number of shells, but increased the range to 6 km. As a base - the same main tank T-72. This system is still used today and in a matter of seconds can cover up to 40 square kilometers with deadly fire.

In general, after testing and combat use, it became clear that although TOS is a very effective weapon, its scope is rather narrow. Long-range flamethrowers are good in local conflicts and counter-terrorist operations, and in large-scale hostilities, the complex is inferior in range and effectiveness to multiple launch rocket systems. This partly explains the relatively small number of TOSs in the armed forces.

The development of the direction of heavy flamethrower systems was TOS-2, or, as its creators affectionately called it, "Tosochka". The developer of TOS-2 is the Tula NPO "Splav" them. A.N. Ganichev, and the Motovilikha Plants car is produced in Perm. Both enterprises are part of the control loop of the Rostec State Corporation. For the first time, "Tosochka" was shown to the general public at the Victory Parade in the summer of 2020.

TOS-2 is the successor of Solntsepek with improved tactical and technical characteristics, but in contrast to it it is made on a platform of a wheeled chassis. The main difference between TOS-2 and previous systems is in the wheelbase. Previous systems are used to move the chassis of the T-72 tank, and the new flamethrower system is based on the Ural-63706 three-axle chassis with all-wheel drive and an armored cab. This off-road platform has already established itself in the army as a multi-functional truck. The decision to change the tank base to a wheel base was dictated by the experience of using the TOS-1A in the Syrian desert.

Apparently, the base is a three-axle off-road vehicle Tornado-U, manufactured at the facilities of the Ural Automobile Plant. Previous systems were located on a tracked platform. In a military campaign, they were accompanied by transport-loading vehicles designed to replenish ammunition. In the new version, they are no longer required, since TOS-2 are able to cope with this task on their own. This is achieved thanks to the installation of a special crane. As a result, the cost of operating the system is reduced and its mobility increases.

It is reported that "Tosochka" can reload itself using the built-in manipulator, as well as adjust fire according to the signals of drones and satellite navigation.

TOS-2 are armed with fuel-air explosive munitions that use spraying of combustible material and explosion of the formed gas cloud. In terms of power, they are compared with midget tactical nuclear munitions, though they have no radiation effect. TOS-2 is a close-range weapon system that can be used against unconcealed and concealed positions. TOS-2’s maximum action effect of unguided missiles in thermobaric equipment could be reached in the mountainous area because of blast wave mutual apposition and their multiple reflections from surrounding rocks, causing of ground taluses, stone blockages.

"TOS-2 is different from its predecessors, because its single wheeled chassis combines functions of an armed vehicle and a transport-loader vehicle, which adds to the system's versatility and self-sufficiency. We have achieved high reliability and mobility of the TOS-2 system during the in-plant testing. Our product fully meets the military operating specifications requested by the Russian Ministry of Defense," noted Kirill Fyodorov, General Director of RT Capital LLC.

The wheeled chassis allows increasing the mobility and speed of delivery of the gun to the place of use, the new TOC will also benefit in saving resources. True, at the same time, the system loses its patency and security, but the first TOS could not boast of a high level of protection, so they had to be used under the cover of tanks. Thus, the lightweight wheeled "Tosochka" will complement the existing tracked variants of fire systems and can be used together with them. In addition, the wheeled version, according to manufacturers, has broader export prospects.

What else has changed in Tosochka compared to Pinocchio and Solntsepek? It has become much more convenient to use. Unlike previous systems, TOS-2 has its own lifting mechanism. This means that she does not need a separate transport-loading vehicle, without the participation of which the former TOS could fire a maximum of one volley. Ammunition for "Tosochka" can be delivered even by an ordinary car, and the combat crew itself will provide the loading.

TOS-2 heavy flamethrower system is armed with a new, more powerful ammunition. As for the weapons of Tosochka, there have been changes here too. Firstly, the number of launcher guides has become even smaller: now there are 18 of them against 24 that the Sun had. It is expected that at the same time the power and range of the shells have increased, although the developers have not yet named specific numbers. The TOS-2 can also work with old shells, since the same 220 mm caliber is used.

The new "Tosochka" is equipped with modern navigation equipment - a laser range finder, satellite navigation, a Doppler speed meter, an inertial measurement unit - and can fire from unprepared firing positions. Guidance and fire control systems operate with a high degree of automation.

According to deputy general director of JSC NPK Tekhmash Alexander Kochkin: “The difference between this machine and the previous generation of TOS-1 and TOS-1A is that it is a fairly automated model of weapons. Today, this weapon model is equipped with navigation equipment, that is, it is capable of operating from unprepared firing positions, fire guidance and fire control systems are automated, and a new ammunition ammunition is being developed”.

According to Kochkin, the wheeled platform chosen by the customer - the Ministry of Defense - significantly increased the stock and mobility of the machine. The developer emphasized that TOS-2 is equipped with a mechanized ammunition loading system. “A transport-loading machine is not needed. Ammunition can be brought on a regular car, the crew equips the car after a salvo, ”Kochkin said. He also noted that the car has armor that protects the crew from small arms bullets.

Defense Ministry of Russia reportedly offered India its latest TOS-2 ‘Tosochka’ heavy flamethrower vehicles for defeating enemy personnel in fortifications at Defence Expo 2020. With a range of 3.5km to 10km, Russians see this as an effective offensive weapons system for deployment in the mountainous area of Line of control against Pakistani forces who in their bid to push terrorists into the Indian side of Kashmir, provide cover fire and target Indian posts regularly. With TOS-2 now coming mounted on a wheeled chassis, mobility in high mountains will not be an issue since its predecessor TOS-1A was mounted on T-72 chassis.

TOS-2 is under development, which has been conducted by the A. N. Ganichev Splav Research and Manufacturing Association. The process of development and the bulk of serial production chain of this combat vehicle are performed in the SKB, a military division of the Motovilikhinskiye Zavody (a part of RT Capital Company of the Rostec State Corporation).

The new second-generation heavy flame-throwing system Tosochka will begin state trials in 2019, director of concern Techmash, Vladimir Lepin told Mil.Press Today at the Army-2019 forum in June 2019. The Fifth International Military & Technical Forum Army-2019 takes place in June 25-30 at Patriot Congress & Expo Center, at Alabino Range and Kubinka Airbase. The forum is open for experts in June 26-27, and for mass visitors in June 28-30.

According to him, Tosochka has better performance characteristics, as compared to TOS-1A Solntsepyok. "In contrast to its predecessor, Solntsepyok, the new system is based on the wheeled chassis", added Vladimir Lepin. The designers made such decision drawing on the operational experience of track-based flamethrower systems in desert zones. In the fall of 2018, directors of Techmash announced that in 2019 the state trials of Tosochka would finish.

The TOS-2 was expected to conclude state trials in 2020, which would pave the way for it to enter serial production and join the Russian military on operational duty. “TOS-2 is at the stage of preliminary tests. According to their results, the letter "O" will be assigned, after which it will go to state tests, which will be completed next year. After that, a decision will be made on its adoption,” said Kochkin 25 June 2020.

State tests of the new long-range rocket projectile for the TOS-2 Tosochka heavy flamethrower system would be completed by the end of the year. This was announced 19 November 2021 in an interview with TASS by the general director of the NPO Splav named after A. N. Ganichev "(part of the Tekhnodinamika holding of the Rostec state corporation) Alexander Smirnov. "A new rocket projectile has been developed. State tests are underway, the first pilot batch has been produced for experimental military operation. We also plan to complete tests of the TOS-2 ammunition in full this year," can also be used with TOS-1A.

The demand for "Tosochka" is confirmed by its inclusion in the state armament program until 2025. The appearance of the new system will be part of a large-scale program for updating the RCBZ troops. The export future of the car is also quite rosy, since the development of TOS-2 was initially carried out with an eye to use in countries with a desert and not very rugged landscape.

The fact that the Uralvagonzavod holding continues to work on the export Solntsepek can be considered proof that Tosochka will not supplant previous flamethrower systems, but will become a kind of extension of the model range. It will be an upgraded version of the TOS-1A with a qualitatively new fire control system, improved tactical controllability and a higher level of protection.

Page last modified: 28-03-2022 14:24:07 Zulu