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T-90C / T-90S / T-90AM / T-90MS

The Tank T-90CM is the export version of the T-90AM. This tank is based on previous versions: the T-90A and T-90C. This tank immediately attracted the attention of interesting technical solutions that were previously on domestic production machines were not used. It looks very impressive with a modern design. Despite the persistence of the name T-90, this modification seems almost new machine. It could well be called the T-2011 and T-92. Although the designers themselves seem to have not yet fully decided on the name, in the press for a long time figured the name T-90AM. It is assumed that confusion could arise because of problems with the declassification of the machine. One way or another, to "Uralvagonzavod" were not particularly something and invent a new machine called the modernization of the T-90S.

Design

The main difference between the new tank in the turret, but in the usual sense of the word it is not a turret, but rather a module. This module is equipped with a large number of innovative systems of command and control. The commander of the machine have the opportunity of autonomous destruction of enemy personnel located at a short distance from the MBT. Now the commander could get a picture round view, thanks to a prism devices and panoramic sight.

The new turret has a more accurate and reliable 125-mm cannon and 7.62-mm remote-controlled machine gun. Due to the installation of multi-channel Gunner stabilized commander's panoramic sight and a circular video surveillance systems, automated tank fire control system provides detection, identification and destruction of targets with the place and on the move at any time of the day or night.

T-90AM is a deep modernization of the T-90. According to General Director "Uralvagonzavod" Oleg Siyenko this machine was modified taking into account the comments and suggestions of the military. In particular, the tank engine became more powerful at 1130 horsepower, the barrel design has been completely changed, the new tank will install completely new machine-gun installation designed taking into account the increased vulnerability, along with upgrading the gearbox and automatic loader. In addition the T-90AM implemented panoramic view and seriously improved software and hardware complex machines.

The advanced tank weight compared with the base model increased by 1.5 tons to 48 tons. The new Russian vehicle used high-power engine and resource. Changed and management system: there was a system of automatic gearshift with the possibility of switching to manual switching, thereby reducing the physical load on the driver, reduce fuel consumption and improve the acceleration characteristics of the machine, and conventional arms for the first time in the history of the Russian tank building replaced the more convenient for the driver's steering wheel.

The engine delivers power 1130 hp, 130 hp more than the previous T-90A (1000 hp). Initially, it was rumored that the engine was 1200 hp, but to achieve this, apparently, it was not possible. The engine has a pleasant, smooth operation sound and provides T-90MS specific power of 23 bhp / tonne. The Maximum speed of the tank on the highway - 60-65km / h. That's not bad, but also not the best indicator. To comply with the proverb "Armor is strong and our tanks are fast ..." the T-90MS should be able to drive at 70-75 km/h, faster than heavy Western tanks. For example, the T-80BV with a mass of 43.7 tons and engine power of 1100 hp accelerates to 80 km/h.

Installation of the engine B-93, despite the increase in the mass of the modernized tank raised its power density up to 23.5 hp/ton against 21.5 hp / ton in the T-90A and T-90C. The planned installation of the engine B-99 will give an even greater increase in power density (up to 24.5 hp/t.

The former first deputy head of the Tank-Automotive Management Ministry of Defence, Lieutenant-General Yuri Kovalenko noted that the wheel significantly simplified the work of the driver and allowed him to pay more attention to what he sees in front of the machine.

The tank is armed with the gun 2A46M-5 with increased accuracy of shooting a caliber of 125 mm gun 2A46M-5. Ammunition gun consists of 40 shots, 22 of which are ready for immediate use and are located in the autoloader. Thanks to the cover its trunk resource managed to raise 70%. This can be considered a real success of designers, as with heavy firing tanks of previous generations could reduce its fighting capacity due to problems with precision instruments.

The most powerful 125-mm smoothbore gun 2A82 latest design is a completely new development. It is believed that this gun is much improved over the previous 125-mm 2A46 gun series, 122-mm rifled 2A17 and 120-mm NATO vskie gun "Rheinmetall" with the barrel length of 44 and 55 gauge. The 2A82 is said to be superior in accuracy and fire power. The same applies to China's 125-mm tank gun ZTZ-99A2 (99A2-type), which is only enhanced "pirated" version of the 2A46. However, the T-90MS apparently can be equipped with the 125mm 2A46M5 cannon, which is mounted on the T-90A. It can be concluded that the tanks with the new gun 2A82 will be supplied to the Russian army weapons and 2A46M5 will be equipped with tanks for export. At the same time, knowing the realities of today, it is possible that all will do the exact opposite.

Particularly impressive are the values ??of the coefficient of metal use and the specific loading of the barrel - the most important parameters that characterize the perfection of design. One of the significant factors affecting the accuracy of the tanks in real operating conditions, is a deformation of the gun barrel, which depends on the heating of the barrel, the rate of firing, precipitation, wind cooling, mechanical effects on the gun during the motion of objects. Deformation of the gun barrel leads to a shift in the direction of the axis of the bore in the area of ??his cutoff relative to the axis of pins in the area and may violate alignment with the gun sights.

To compensate for thermal bending (one of the components of the barrel deformation) on tanks used foreign collimators - position sensors gun barrel end mounted near the muzzle. On the domestic tanks used simpler optomechanical embedded control device alignment (UVKV) also solves the problem of partial accounting of thermal bending (about half) and mechanical churning sight line of sight relative to the bore axis. However, for manual adjustment of alignment using collimators and UVKV required tank and stop time for the control and recovery of reconciliation, that is not always possible on the battlefield. In addition, it excluded the possibility of taking into account the dynamic barrel fluctuations. Thus, it becomes urgent task automation of accounting of thermal and mechanical bending of the barrel vibrations during firing. This problem was solved by the integration of the FCS "Kalina" thermal barrel bending accounting device CID-1.

In 2003, state tests were conducted on the 2A46M-5, and in 2005 it was put into service, serially produced at the Ekaterinburg factory artillery #9. Currently 2A46M-5 is installed on all tanks T-90A, coming off the line at Uralvagonzavod. This smoothbore gun of high power and partly chrome barrel 2A82 is a completely new development, only superficially similar to the 125-mm tank gun of the previous generation. The achieved level of energy performance 2A82 cannon allows it a significant advantage over serial and developed by domestic and foreign counterparts. 2A82 cannon muzzle energy is substantially greater muzzle energy of a well-known gun Rheinmetall Rh 120 / L55.

One of the most important tasks was to increase the firepower of Russian tanks, which began to develop new armor-piercing projectiles (BPS). These works were carried out in the framework of the ROC "Lead-1" and "Lead-2" and ended with the creation and adoption of shots with the so-called "long (L = 740 mm) BPS. Application ZVBM22 shots with BPS ZBM59 "Lead-1" and ZVBM23 with BPS ZBM60 "Lead-2" and propelling charge 4ZH96 "Ozone-T" makes it possible to significantly improve the armor penetration while increasing the actual shooting distance. Remote-controlled machine-gun installation T05BV-1 with 7.62-mm machine gun 6P7K (PKTM). Designed to combat manpower of the enemy, which is hiding or higher than firing the main armament sector, for example on the upper floors of buildings, steep mountain slopes. Either the lower sector of fire the main armament, in shelters, dugouts, or directly from the tanks in the so-called "Dead zone" for the tank gun and coaxial machine gun. Thus, according to the constructors battle tank resistance should be provided in confined urban environments and combat. Ammunition 7,62mmh54R 800 different types of ammunition.

The electromechanical stabilizer 2E58 is a new generation, which allowed the new Russian tanks to rotate the turret and firing in the "silent monitoring", developed version of the stabilizer to the tank T-90MS, said Oleg Kulikov, a leading software engineer who developed stabilizer Enterprise Institute "Signal" (included in the holding Rostec "Precision systems"). "The regulator tank weapons 2E58 hydraulic drive is replaced by an electric. This allows considerably - up to 10-15 times - to reduce energy consumption and implement a stabilizer mode so-called "silent monitoring" when the gunner and tank commander can rotate the turret, raise and lower the gun to fire without including engines, only through the work of the tank battery. Develop options for the stabilizer T-90MS - new export version of the T-90", - said Kulikov.

According to him, earlier stabilizer 2E42 installed on serial tanks T-72, T-80, T-90 consumes about 70 amps, so the on-board network would instantly cause the tank battery to go down, so that it needed engines running. The use of electro-mechanical stabilizer allows to drastically reduce the cost of maintenance and fire safety in the tank, since it does not use a working hydraulic fluid, which can break the hose and fill the entire interior of the tank, and can cause a fire.

JSC "NII Stali" equipped this tank with universal dynamic protection complex (CLE) modular "Relic". The tank used just two navigation system: satellite and inertial. This combination will allow the crew to monitor the location of his car even in areas with disabled channels of communication.

The tank has excellent security. According to the developers, none of the modern anti-tank missiles can hit it in the frontal projection. Such reliability developers managed to achieve through the use of innovative approaches to solving this problem.

In general, the fighting compartment of the upgraded T-90S tank, including the turret, is far less vulnerable than its predecessors. Hits on the aft or rear side of the T-72B turret very often resulted in a fire or detonation of ammunition and, a partial or complete loss of crew.

Despite the fact that the T-90MS turret seems more vulnerable to enemy fire than with the turrets of predecessors - the T-72B and T-90A, the level of survivability of the tank, and more importantly - the survival of the crew, became incomparably higher. The survivability of the T-90MS and the survival of his crew in the event of destruction of the tank, in principle, conforms to that of Western tanks. Another advantage of such a turret - greater comfort and more space inside the crew compartment of the tank.

The tank uses a new generation of dynamic protection - "Relic". The tank is protected not only from missiles but from piercing projectiles, protection system simply breaks the cores of ammunition of this type, not allowing them to do damage to the machine. In addition, the tank is equipped with protection against shrapnel injury housing options. This protection is based on the mechanical resistance of high-strength screens. Armor protection side projections MBT allows the crew to feel safe, even in the enemy side.

On increasing the survivability of the tank and directed placement machines ammunition in a separate module and not inside the body, as it was in previous machines. This approach to the placement of ammunition able to significantly improve the survivability of the machine, preventing detonation of ammunition if swallowed enemy projectile body.

Another innovation was the additional diesel-generator set, which is used to supply the tank during parking. Its use is not only reduces fuel consumption, but also significantly reduces the visibility in the infrared tank. Earlier, the tank was an ideal target for the enemy. At the same time it could not save no disguise. Now the tank and its crew is protected even in the time when the tank is in a state of activity.

Program

Featured in the exhibition of arms the REA-2011 sample of the upgraded main battle tank T-90S has been focused primarily on foreign customers, so some systems mounted on it, has been in the export performance.

The fact that has repeatedly appeared information that the T-90M and a new generation of tank T-14 "Armata" will receive the same gun. However, this has not been confirmed. The fact that the installation of the new gun will entail quite a long time and are quite expensive tests and modernized tanks because of the complicated by the political situation required today. In addition, currently used in a weapon 2A46M5 new, including guided munitions generally reflects today's demands and is ready to fulfill the tasks of the near future.

OJSC "Research and Production Corporation" Uralvagonzavod "(DC) received approval to export the modernized tank T-90S, Deputy Director General of Uralvagonzavod for special equipment Vyacheslav Halitov. According to him, at the VIII International Exhibition of Arms, Military Equipment and Ammunition "Russian Expo Arms Nizhny Tagil - 2011" scheduled to hold talks with delegations from 11 countries about possible exports of the upgraded tank.

At the same time, Deputy General Director of "Rosoboronexport" Igor Sevastyanov said that the volume of exports of equipment for ground forces could reach $ 5 billion in 2011, and this is not the limit. "This investment reserve - guarantee the stable operation of our defense industry enterprises and the availability of jobs for them," - he said.

Russia may soon move on to the implementation of contracts for the supply of T-90MS Middle East, announced in February 2015 the general director and general designer of the Ural Design Bureau of Transport Machinery Andrei Terlikov. "After a series of tests, we note the increased interest from potential customers for this car" - Terlikov said. He noted that the T-90MS has received a number of improvements "to meet the requirements of potential customers." In particular, we are talking about an increase in engine power, equipment of the new tank, air-conditioned and enhancing booking engine compartment, as well as the installation of the turret machine gun 12.7 mm caliber, and other modifications. "This tank is changed booking concept and engine-transmission compartment received strong defense, including by means of close combat. We have successfully confront the latest operating time of our opponents in terms of anti-tank weapons, "- he added.

The Russian army is interested in the modernization of existing in the Army T-90 tanks to the level of the T-90M "Breakthrough-3". Information about this was announced on the military-technical forum "Army 2015" and International exhibition of arms RAE-2015. On the "Army-2015" at the stand of the main Armored Directorate of Defense of the Russian Federation demonstrated the model T-90M, Nizhny Tagil showed export T-90MS, which, according to representatives of the "Uralvagonzavod", "very similar to the version for the Russian army."

SPECIFICATIONS T-90MS The weight of the tank with ammunition, 48 tons Crew 3 The specific power, kW / m (hp / r) is not less than 17.7 (24) COMPLEX WEAPONS The gun type, caliber 2A46M-5 - 125 mm smoothbore Applicable types of shells BPS, OFS, BCS, ur machine gun 7.62 mm PKTM (6P7K) machine gun with a 7.62-mm machine gun 7.62 mm PKTM (6P7K) with UDP (T05BV-1) Ammunition, pc Shots for at least 40 guns Ammunition for coaxial machine gun 2000 Cartridges for machine gun 800 FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM sighting system The main gunner's sight with reticle and multi-channel thermal channel, laser rangefinder, built-in laser channel management Increase sighting channel, the multiplicity of 4; 12 Target recognition range of the "tank" by sighting channel m up to 5000 detection range goals such as "tank" by TP channel m is not less than 3500 Maximum range measured rangefinder, m 7500 Sight commander of the combined panoramic with a television and thermal imaging channels, a laser range finder range target recognition of the "tank" by TV channel m to 5000 range target recognition of the "tank" at night through the TP-channel, m not less than 3,500 sight-doubler with dependent line of sight target recognition range of the "tank", m: day of not less than 2000 in the evening at least 1,000 ballistic computer with a set of sensors and meteorological sensor topouslovy and bend the trunk of accounting electronic digital The automatic tracking of targets is provided independently from the gunner's seat and with the commander of the place with the implementation of the regime, "the hunter - the arrow" stabilizer arms advanced two-plane with an electromechanical drive and electro-GN WH speed Swapping turret horizontally, / with at least 40 guided weapons have PROTECTION The armor protection type combined with a modular RS and latticed screens on feed and side projection screens staging system optoelectronic from anti-tank weapons c laser seeker or LD system of protection against weapons of mass destruction, a type of collective with instrumental complex PKUZ 1A electromagnetic protection system has a Fire equipment-speed protection of the crew from the secondary flow tank splinter-proof shields of aramid fabric fragments Mobility and terrain The maximum speed on the highway, km / h 60 fording, 1.8 m to cross water obstacles with OPVT, up to 5 m (width of up to 1000 m) POWER POINT The engine power, kW (hp.). In-92S2F, 831 (1130) transmission with automatic shift and rotating wheel control SPECIAL EQUIPMENT Air conditioning is installed on a special request of the auxiliary diesel generator set installed Electrical power nominal kW at least 7




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