S-21 SSBJ Super Sonic Business Jet
In 1989 the Sukhoi OKB, on the initiative design project leader M.P.Simonov began studies of the concept of supersonic passenger aircraft - "small" (administrative) S-21 and "large" (passenger) S-51. The work was conducted under the direct management of design project leader M.A.Pogosyan's deputy. "The ideology" of the OKB consisted of creating of supersonic aircraft, capable of connecting any two capitals or two large world industrial centers, in the course of nonstop supersonic overflight or overflight with one intermediate landing. This required reaching service range on the order of 7400-9000 km with cruising speeds, appropriate M=1.8-2.2. The S-21 had to transport 5-8, and S-51 - 30-50 people. A number of aerodynamic layouts of aircraft with two, three and four engines were developed during the 1990s.
In particular,studies of the aircraft of business- class S-21G were done together with the American firm Gulfstream (the US firm that specialized in the creation of business-class jets). On 19 June 1989 during the Paris air show at Le Bourget the US Gulfstream company and Sukhoi design bureau signed an agreement on the possibility of joint development, production and marketing of a supersonic business jet capable of transporting 10 passengers at a range of 9,200 km at Mach 2.0. Works on the S-21 project (Gulfstream-IV-Su) started in a three-month period. This was equipped with promising English engines, whose design was together investigated by AO A.Lyulka-Saturn and by English firm Rolls-Royce. However, in 1992, the Americans forewent the collaboration, fearing high expenditures and technical problems. At the end 1993, after obtaining by 25 million dollars from Russian investors, the work was renewed. The S-21 reached the stage of the completion of design despite the fact that the part of the means from this project were moved for the completion of the prototype of the S-37 5th generation fighter.
Subsequently, Russian power plants were examined - the D-21 (AO "aircraft engine") and VK-21 (AMNTK Soyuz). In 1999 these passed bench tests. Extensive work was conducted on an improvement in their characteristics, a decrease in the level of the harmful emission of the exhaust gases, and also the decrease in the level of noise.
In the course of the implementation of program is executed the significant volume of wind tunnel tests of TsAGI (Central Institute of Aerohydrodynamics im. N Ye Zhukovskiy) and SibNIA, which made it possible to optimize the aerodynamic layout of aircraft and to minimize the intensity of acoustic shock wave, after making its flight at the cruising altitude unobtrusive for people on the ground. This is caused by the prohibition, which exists in the legislation of a number of the countries to the flights above their territory with supersonic speed. Aircraft must be sufficient to economical both on the supersonic and in the subsonic regimes. High takeoff and landing characteristics were combined with the autonomous ground handling, which significantly decreases the needs for the airport equipment.
The S-21 was represented at the airshow "Le Bourget-99". During the visit of M.P.Simonova to France in March 1999, a number of questions were examined on the possibility of the attraction of French firm Dassault for the creation S-21. However, in the opinion of experts, it was highly improbable, that "Dassault" will go to the full-scale collaboration in this sphere. The company Dassault began to research in this area in the 1980s. Within six days (from 24 February to 1 March 1998) on the territory of one of the largest airports in Asia "Changi (Singapore) was 9th international aerospace exhibition" Asian Aerospace-98. Interesting information gave French Dassault Aviason], after reporting the plans of the development of supersonic administrative aircraft SSBJ. Provision is made for the creation of three-engine aircraft, the capable of accomplishing flights with eight passengers with the cruising number Of [m]=1,8 up to the distance of 7,200 km of any other details about the aircraft SSBJ firm did not report, after stating only that its takeoff mass can be 40 t, from which half will fall on the fuel.
Mikhail Simonov stated that by the end 1999 the documentation on the prototype S-21 would be finished and transmitted into the experimental production. The first flight was planned in 2002. The calculated cost of one machine was $50,000,000. First deputy design project leader at Sukhoi OKB Aleksey Knyshev said in April 2000 that the OKB required for the completion of creation S-21 about $1 billion. Bringing this project to realization will be very complicated without attracting external investments. Sukhoi conducted negotiations with interested parties on the organization of international consortium for the purpose of the creation of the supersonic business aircraft, which corresponds to requirements for the supersonic passenger aircraft (SPS) of the second generation.
In November 2000 Sukhoi proposed to China to carry out a joint design of the supersonic administrative passenger aircraft of the second generation of class C-21.
Sukhoi-Dassault Aviation cooperation lies within an agreement to study a possibility of designing a new supersonic business jet (the SSBJ project). In early 2003 Dassault signed a cooperation agreement with Sukhoi which could lead to joint development of supersonic aircraft service SSBJ (SuperSonic Business Jet), transport spacecraft multiple applications and unmanned aerial vehicles. The French company has long planned to manufacture jet aircraft service at a rate corresponding to an M = 1.8, but the plans have failed to be implemented due to difficulties in reducing the sonic boom. The company Dassault considered it unlikely that Sukhoi would be involved in the integration of business aircraft, as it is mainly a military organization, but is counting on his vast experience in the development of supersonic engines.
The Sukhoi-Dassault supersonic aircraft Falcon will have a length of 31 m and a "duck" aerodynamic scheme. According to reports, the company Dassault as a possible power exploring alternative engine SNECMA M88 organization applied for fighter "Rafale", as well as F414 American company General Electric. The company intended to use the mixing jets instead of afterburner chambers to reduce noise; more details were expected in October 2003, at the Conference of the National Association of Service Aviation (NBAA) in Orlando (Florida pcs). For the evolving design of a maximum range of about 7500 km.
At present work on the project is frozen.
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