ARC Cable Ship / Kabelnoe Sudnoe
A Cable vessel is a special vessel for laying, servicing and repairing cable communication lines and power transmission in the open sea. The main purpose of cable vessels is the laying, lifting and repair of submarine communication cables. These vessels serve cables not only for military purposes. The development of the country required the creation of a large cable vessel (BKBS) for the development of a system of long submarine communication lines.
Undersea optical communication systems include land-based terminals containing transmitters and receivers connected by a cabled-glass-transmission medium that includes periodically spaced repeaters, which contain optical amplifiers whose purpose is to compensate for the optical attenuation in the cabled fiber. As the repeaters are usually placed undersea and away from power sources, power must be supplied remotely to the repeaters. The cabled fiber therefore usually contains a copper conductor to carry electrical power to the repeaters from the terminals. These undersea systems serve to carry optical communication signals (i.e., traffic) between the terminals. The traffic on these systems can consist of voice, data, television, Internet traffic, international telephone traffic, etc. Consequently, the revenue lost when the system is down can be significant. Therefore, these systems must have high reliability and availability.
To provide increased flexibility in undersea network architecture beyond simple point-to-point interconnection between land-based terminal, a branching unit is provided, which allows traffic to be split or switched to/from multiple landing points. Conventional branching units typically manage the cabled-fiber interconnections and the power conductor paths among three cables. The latter is necessary to maintain as much traffic carrying capability when a fault occurs in one of the three cable legs, which increases the availability of the system.
The most common type of electrical undersea fault is a shunt, that is, a current leakage path that develops between the power conductor and the seawater without necessarily a break in the power conductor. A shunt fault is often the result of external aggression to the cable from fishing trawlers, ships' anchors and the like. At the site of a shunt fault, the optical glass fibers are often left intact, but sometimes are damaged as well.
Another common fault resulting from external aggression is a complete cable break, also referred to as a cable cut, where the power conductor is parted and generally exposed to seawater at both ends. Of course, the glass fibers in this case are broken and parted as well.
The laying of the first submarine communication cables was carried out from tugboats and other vessels converted for this purpose, including passenger ships. Special Cable Vessels appeared at the end of the 19th century. The amount of cable received on board is from hundreds to 5-8 thousand km on the largest ocean vessels.
Cable Vessels have a distinctive nose tip with a forward crambol with large pulleys through which the cable sinks into the sea or rises from the water. Cable passing pulleys are also installed in the stern. Cable Vessels have 2 to 3 decks, and tanks located in the middle or slightly shifted to the stern. A number of compartments of the vessel have cylindrical tanks - tenks designed for cable. The cable in tanks is laid around the circumference, and its individual ends, where amplifiers should be connected or made, are brought out onto the deck through the tanks cover. Tanks are waterproof and can be filled with water during cable inspections.
On the deck there are through passages from the bow to the stern for cable management. For laying and lifting the cable, cable machines with electric drives with a lifting capacity of up to 30 t are used - such as winches and multi-pulleys. The latter allow cable routing with built-in amplifiers continuously without stopping the vessel. Caterpillar cable machines are also used for this purpose. Usually, several machines are installed on a ship: 1-2 winch-type machines in the bow, and a machine for continuous cable laying in the stern. Cable Vessels are equipped with diving stations, underwater television, devices for lifting and splicing cables. Cable ships have equipment for continuous monitoring of the electrical characteristics of the cable, buoys, etc.
The water displacement of ships is cf. 2-10 thousand tons and reaches 15-20 thousand tons; speed is about 15 knots, when laying the cable - up to 8 knots. When passing through an amplifier cable machine, the laying speed decreases to 1-2 knots. K. p. provide equipment for continuous monitoring of the characteristics of the cable being laid or being repaired and the state of the amplifiers; communication equipment with the coast station via cable; devices with captures, so-called grapnel, to search for and lift the cable from the bottom; buoys for temporary fixation of the damaged cable section; floats for bringing the cable ashore; devices for splicing cable ends.
Cable Vessels have diesel or diesel-electric power plants and fairly powerful power plants. Cable laying through inland waters is usually carried out from various vessels temporarily equipped with winches and other means for lowering and raising the cable. Cable Vessels have diesel or diesel-electric power plants and fairly powerful power plants. Cable laying through inland waters is usually carried out from various vessels temporarily equipped with winches and other means for lowering and raising the cable. Cable Vessels have diesel or diesel-electric power plants and fairly powerful power plants. Cable laying through inland waters is usually carried out from various vessels temporarily equipped with winches and other means for lowering and raising the cable.
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