S-200 SA-5 GAMMON - Program
The long-range S-200 long-range anti-aircraft missile system (SA-5 Gammon) is designed to combat modern and prospective air targets: airborne aircraft and control aircraft, airborne reconnaissance and strike systems, high-speed SR-71 reconnaissance aircraft, jammers and other manned and unmanned means of air attack in conditions of intense radio interference. The system is weatherproof and can be operated in different climatic conditions.
The development of the long-range anti-aircraft missile system was started at the Almaz Central Design Bureau in 1958, under the C-200A index (the Angara code), the system was adopted for the Soviet Union's air defense in 1963. The first S-200A battalions were deployed from 1963 to 1964 Subsequently, the S-200 system was upgraded several times: in 1970, the S-200V (Vega code), and in 1975, the S-200D (Dubna cipher). In the course of modernization, the range of fire and the height of the defeat of targets were significantly increased.
In the mid-1950s in the conditions of the rapid development of supersonic aviation and the appearance of thermonuclear weapons, the task of creating a transportable long-range anti-aircraft missile system capable of intercepting high-speed high-altitude targets became of particular urgency. The mobile system S-75, adopted in 1957, in its first modifications had a range of only about 30 km, so that the formation of defensive lines on the probable routes of the aircraft of the probable enemy to the most populated and industrially developed regions of the USSR, with the use of these complexes, in an extremely costly undertaking. Especially difficult would be the creation of such lines on the most dangerous northern direction, which was on the shortest path of the approach of American strategic bombers.
The northern regions, even the European part of the country, were distinguished by a rare network of roads, low density of settlements, separated by vast expanses of almost impenetrable forests and marshes. A new mobile anti-aircraft missile system was required with greater range and height of the interception of the target.
Development of the S-200 complex was started in the 1950s in KB-1 (now "Almaz"). General Designer A. Raspletin. The anti-aircraft guided missile was developed at the Fakel Design Bureau, the general designer P. Grushin. The S-200 missile system was created at the same time as the DAL missile system and had similar parameters of the affected area, but was single-channel.
In accordance with the Government Decrees of March 19, 1956 and May 8, 1957 No. 501-250, many organizations and enterprises of the country were involved in the development of the long-range anti-aircraft missile system. The main organizations were identified for the system as a whole and for ground-based radio-technical means of the fire complex - KB-1 GKRE, and for an anti-aircraft guided missile, which for the first time had the designation B-200 - OKB-2 GKAT. The general designers of the system as a whole and the missiles were appointed, respectively, AA. Raspletin and PD Grushin.
Indicators for the range of target destruction looked much more modest than the characteristics of the already introduced American Nike-Hercules or ZUR 400 for Dal. But a few months later, by the decision of the Commission on Military Industrial Issues of September 12, No. 136, the developers were instructed to bring the range of defeat of the V-860 supersonic targets with EPR Il-28 to 110-120 km, and subsonic to 160-180 km. with the use of the "passive" part of the rocket's inertia after the completion of the work of its marching engine
The draft design for the B-860 (5B21) missile was released by OKB-2 at the end of December 1959. Special attention was paid during the design to taking special measures to protect the rocket's components from aerodynamic heating, which occurs during a long (more than a minute) flight from hypersonic speed. For this purpose, the rockets most heated in flight were covered with heat protection.
The development of long-range systems was carried out on the basis of a number of scientific and technical solutions that had no analogues in world practice. A number of tasks were solved for the first time, including the principles of the construction of radar facilities for the anti-aircraft missile system, including the target radar (ROC) and the semi-active head of the rocket homing, and the requirements for their equipment, providing a combination of high accuracy of speed, range, angular coordinates and speed and range use of continuous phase-code-manipulated and frequency-modulated signals;
The principle of semi-active homing of a missile on the target was realized on the basis of the use of the flight control system from launch to the meeting point in the onboard equipment of the missile. Special methods of anti-jamming were implemented, which make it possible to ensure high fire efficiency both in terms of targets in conditions of intense cover interference, and in the form of active jammers of various types.
The designers developed and introduced into the ROC electronic computer "Flame". Combat programs of the computer ensured guidance on the target designations of the tracking systems of the ROC with respect to angular coordinates, range and speed, calculation before the rocket launch of the modes of functioning of its on-board equipment in flight, depending on the parameters of the target's movement, the solution of the launch tasks, the firing of targets from closed positions.
The first divisions of the S-200A ("Angara") were deployed from 1963 to 1964 in the suburbs of Tallinn. ZRS S-200 (code "Angara") was adopted by the air defense forces of the country in 1967. Later, there were upgrades of this anti-aircraft missile system: 1970 - S-200V (code "Vega") and 1975 - C -200D (code "Dubna"). In the course of modernization, the range of fire (from 150 km to 300 km) and the height of the attack (from 20 to 41 km) were significantly increased. In total, 1950 launchers were deployed. However, the beginning of a wide deployment of the S-300 led to a reduction in the number of S-200 battalions to 500 launchers in 1996. Since its inception, the S-200 SAM has been upgraded many times: in 1970, S-200V (Vega) in 1975 - the S-200D ("Dubna"). In the course of modernization, the range of fire and the height of the target's damage were significantly increased (from 20 to 41 km).
In Russia, the S-200 was a part of anti-aircraft missile brigades or regiments of mixed composition, including, in addition, S-125 divisions and direct cover ZU-23 or S-60. In 1983, the system began to be deployed on the territory of the Warsaw Pact countries: in East Germany, Czechoslovakia and Hungary, which was the result of the 1982 deliveries of NATO E-ZA AWACS aircraft to NATO.
At the end of 1987, the S-200s were delivered to North Korea for use in air defense forces. Complexes were able to carry out the defeat of aircraft type E-ZA AWACS, TR-l / U-2, RC-135 to the northern borders of South Korea. The complex was delivered to Bulgaria, Hungary, India, Iran, North Korea, Libya, Poland, Syria, Czech Republic.
For many years, reconnaissance planes of the United States and NATO countries were forced to conduct reconnaissance flights only along the borders of the USSR and the Warsaw Treaty countries. The presence in the USSR air defense system of S-200 long-range anti-aircraft missile systems of various modifications made it possible to reliably cover the airspace at near and far approaches to the air border of the country, including the famous SR-71 Black Bird reconnaissance aircraft.
The deployment of the S-200 complex turned out to be expedient considering the subsequent adoption of an air-to-surface guided missile SRAM (AGM-69A, Short Range Attack Missile) with a launch range of 160 km. when starting from low altitudes and 320 km from high altitudes. This missile was designed to fight medium-range and short-range air defense assets, as well as to attack other previously identified targets and targets.
According to American data, in 1970 the number of S-200 launchers was 1,100, in 1975 it was 1,600, in 1980 -1900. The development of this system reached its peak in the mid-1980s, when the number of launchers was 2030 units. With the transition of the country's air defense forces to the new S-300P complexes that began in the eighties, the S-200 systems of the S-200 began to be phased out. By the beginning of the 2000s, the S-200 (Angara) and S-200 (Vega) complexes were completely removed from service by the Russian Air Defense Forces.
Upgraded versions of the SA-5/S-200s have been tested since 2008, but there are few unclassified data to support ambitious, and probably grossly exaggerated, Iranian claims for upgrading the SA-5/S-200.
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