After experimental studies of the scattering of electromagnetic waves from the aircraft and the calculation of the possible radio detection ranges of the LPTI, together with the KBPA CB, began in 1936 to develop pulsed equipment. The design bureau took upon itself the creation of a pulsed transmitter with a radiation power of about 100 kW at a wavelength of 3.5–4 m with a “wave channel” antenna, and LFTI - a pulse modulator and receiving-indicator device. The agreed work plan stipulated that the stationary type transmitter would work in Moscow (for fear of harmful effects on the receiver), and the receiving equipment would work at the testing ground near Moscow, being mounted in a special screened cab on a car. The receiving antenna of two half-wave vibrators was placed on the cab roof and allowed to get zero reception in a given direction, what provided detuning from disturbing influence of direct signals of the transmitter.
By the stipulated time limit (end of 1936), LPTI completed its scope of development, however, the first experiments on the aircraft showed that the transmitter of the HPVO UD was not working properly. It was decided to launch a generator with a power of about 1 kW on standard G-165 lamps produced by industry. But the task of managing this generator, P. K. Oschepkov and his staff, could not be solved for a long time. And in order not to delay the tests, the team of Yu. B. Kobzarev had to perform this task himself. Having ascertained that the close-in receiver retained its working capacity, and having tuned the antenna-feeder system, the developers of the LFTI continued the experiments on the aircraft. The first tests of the installation near Moscow on April 15, 1937 were successful, the detection range of the aircraft was about 7 km.
On the instructions of NIIIS KA LFTI began the complex development of pulse equipment with improved tactical and technical characteristics. In August 1938, a radio detection station with improved equipment was tested on the territory of the Scientific Research Institute and showed that it could be detected at a distance of 50 km with an altitude of 1500 m. Firstly, the problem of long-range radio detection of aircraft is fundamentally solved and its subsequent implementation will require only engineering and design and technological efforts and, secondly, the obvious advantage of pulse stations as compared with stations using continuous wave Doppler.
The tests carried out on the importance of their results and the consequences of their use were the most important milestone in the history of Russian radar. If experiments CRL in 1934proved the possibility of radio detection of aircraft, then the work of the LPTI team confirmed theoretically and practically the possibility of creating an installation of long-range radio detection with tactical and technical characteristics that met the requirements of the air defense forces. Yu. B. Kobzarev (head of research and development of pulsed technology) and his assistants P. A. Pogorelko and P. Ya. Chernetsov should be commended for the results they achieved in such a short time, which were fundamental in the history of the development of domestic radio detection equipment.
The test results of the early warning experimental station conducted in August 1938, as well as the calculations of Yu. B. Kobzarev, allowed the Space Communications Authority, without waiting for the end of the joint work of the LPTI and the Research Institute of Spacecraft to create a mobile version of the Redut station, in February 1939. to the Defense Committee of the USSR SNK a proposal for the industry to develop two experimental samples of the station. NIIIS KA proposed to solve such a problem by the Research Institute of Radio Industry, which had many years of experience in the field of creating radio telemechanical devices and VHF radio lines. The choice of this institution was not accidental. The customer understood that the development of the first radar stations that met the requirements of the troops would require not blindly copying “Reduce” created by LFTI and NIIIS K, but also carrying out simultaneously with the design of a number of studies which would provide radar to military samples. In close business cooperation, LFTI and NIIIS KA (head of work A.I. Shestakov) during the year created a mobile station, called Redut. One year after the tests of the stationary installation of LFTI, which confirmed the brilliant capabilities of the pulsed technology, in August 1939, the Redut ground tests were carried out at NIIIS KA.
Using the results of theoretical and experimental work of LFTI and its research with the active help of engineers of the Scientific-Research Institute of Spacecraft (headed by A. I. Shestakov), the research institute produced two prototypes of the Redut station during the year and in April 1940 (one year after Defense Committee) presented them to the customer. Each station consisted of: a 50 kW transmitter, with a wavelength of 4 m, mounted inside a van rotating on a motor vehicle chassis; receiving equipment in the same rotating van on a car with a marker and a luminous scan on a CRT screen, designed for a detection range of up to 100 km; two “wave channel” antennas rigidly fixed on each van with synchronous rotation. There were five directors, one active vibrator and one reflector in the antenna; power supply unit of 30–40 kW, mounted on the car GAZ-ZA (the third car station).
In order to speed up the issue of adopting the station for arming, the People’s Commissar of Defense issued an order on May 31, 1940 to conduct combined field and military tests of the station. In June – July 1940, one sample was tested at the Scientific-Research Institute of Spacecraft, and another - in the military unit of VNOS under the guidance of VNOS service officer P. V. Vasyukov. Both samples successfully passed the tests and showed the same results, which fully corresponded to last year's tests of the Redut experimental station (LFTI – NIIIS KA). and the other in the military unit of VNOS under the direction of VNOS service officer P. V. Vasyukov. Both samples successfully passed the tests and showed the same results, which fully corresponded to last year's tests of the Redut experimental station (LFTI – NIIIS KA). and the other in the military unit of VNOS under the direction of VNOS service officer P. V. Vasyukov. Both samples successfully passed the tests and showed the same results, which fully corresponded to last year's tests of the Redut experimental station (LFTI – NIIIS KA).
By order of the People's Commissar of Defense dated July 26, 1940, the Redut station was adopted by the Air Defense Forces under the name RUS-2. The decree of the Defense Committee at SNK of the USSR of December 27, 1939 obliged the Research Institute of the radio industry to produce an experimental batch (10 sets) of the radar ENG-2 before January 1, 1941. The research institutes fulfilled this task in March – June 1941 and, in the course of the work, eliminated the production defects found at the stations, creating conditions for the serial production of stations for the nearest period. In developmentCompared with the RUS-1 system, the domestic radar technology of the radar RUS-2 was a significant step forward, as it allowed not only to detect enemy aircraft at long distances and at almost all heights, but also to continuously determine their range, azimuth and flight speed. In addition, with the circular synchronous rotation of both antennas, the station RUS-2 detected groups and single planes that were in the air at different azimuths and distances within their area of ??operation and watched with time interruptions (one turn of the antenna) as they moved. Thus, with the help of the RUS-2 station, the air defense command could monitor the dynamics of the air situation in a zone with a radius of up to 100 km, determine the enemy's air forces and even his intentions, counting where and how many airplanes are currently sent.
The entry into the air defense forces of the stations, the RUS-2, led to a tactical-technical revolution in the air surveillance service and radically affected the effectiveness of the country's air defense. For a scientific and technical contribution to the creation of the first airborne early warning stations, a group of LFTI employees Yu. B. Kobzarev, P. A. Pogorelko and N. Ya. Chernetsov in 1941 were awarded the USSR State Prize. They became the first laureates of the State Prize in the field of radar. The NIIIS KA engineers, who interacted daily with LFTI and the radio industry institute and provided the latter with scientific and technical assistance in the calculations, tuning and testing of individual radio blocks and the station as a whole, played a major role in the creation and production of early warning stations RUS-2. By the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, in the air defense systems of Moscow and Leningrad there were 30 radars RUS-2.
By the beginning of World War II, the Black Sea Fleet had five domestic aircraft detection radars (two radars RUS-2 near Sevastopol, two RUS-1s on the Taman Peninsula and one Redut-K on the Molotov cruiser), on the Northern Fleet - nine Radar type RUS-1. In the air defense system of the Baltic Fleet (mainly in the area of Leningrad and Kronstadt) were station RUS-2.
The intensive arming of the air defense forces of the fleets and ships with radar stations began in the second half of 1942. In a fairly short time, more advanced radar detection of Pegmatit-2M air targets, station variants for the naval aviation Gneiss-2M, Gneiss-5M, shipborne radar Guys and its modifications, as well as aircraft radar identification devices, radar fire control anti-aircraft artillery type SON-2ot.
On September 8, the Germans closed the ring around Leningrad, but remained uncovered by the Gulf of Finland. And in Kronstadt was concentrated the Baltic Fleet, withdrawn in August from Tallinn. The first fascist plan to seize Leningrad was a lightning air strike. A sudden raid from three sides was supposed to destroy the Baltic Fleet and suppress the city’s defenses. For this operation, the most powerful German 1st Air Force was allocated, reinforced by the 8th Air Attack Air Force.
The naval and coastal artillery of the Baltic Fleet represented a powerful fist. It consisted of 472 guns, plus 16 batteries of naval guns, placed on railway platforms. The main calibers are 120–305 millimeters. After the destruction of naval artillery, the Germans planned to launch an assault on Leningrad from the area of ??Pulkovo Heights. The enemy was convinced that sudden attacks from three directions would suppress all ground defense points and would allow to destroy the main obstacle - the Baltic Fleet.
The Germans did not know, and perhaps did not attach any importance to the fact that in the USSR already since 1933, work was carried out on radar. In 1940, the industry presented two mobile prototypes of the Redut station for conducting field tests, and on July 26 of the same year, the first radar station was put into service under the name of RUS-2 (aircraft radio trap) by order of the NKO. In total, in 1941–1945, 607 such installations were produced, three of which were located near Leningrad in the initial period of the war. One of them, the Redut-3 with the GI Gelfenstein radar operator, played an important role in disrupting the lightning strike on our objects. Admiral Vladimir Tributs even promised to present the distinguished hero of the Soviet Union, but the paper was probably lost.
September 21 installation RUS-2 for the first time proved to be in service. They helped the Soviet troops win a three-day air-land-sea battle. Unfortunately, this episode is reflected very little in the history of the Great Patriotic War. But he actually frustrated the fascist seizure plan of Leningrad. It is believed that the attack on the blockaded city began on September 23, 1941 from the Pulkovo Heights area. But the Kronstadt battle, which broke the plans of the Germans and forced them to go on to a long siege of Leningrad, began two days earlier.
On September 21, at 10 hours and 40 minutes, operator RUS-2 Gelfenstein spotted bombers at a distance of 180-210 kilometers. He also determined the number and direction of movement of the targets, which he immediately reported to the authority. In the first echelon, the operator counted 220–230 aircraft. The resulting advantage of 12–15 minutes, which remained until the bombers reached the target, gave time for preparation. The enemy was met with heavy barrage artillery fire of the 8th Army and Navy. The planes were forced to throw the deadly cargo into the waters of the Gulf of Finland.
On September 22 and 23, the fascists repeated the raids, but fewer bombers took part in them — 160–180 and 140–160, respectively. Reducing the number was not so much with serious losses - the defenders of the city shot down 25 aircraft, as with multiple damage to the machines. A total of 550–560 bombers participated in the raids. There was no defeat of the Baltic Fleet, which became a powerful fire shield, thanks to which Leningrad survived. Already on September 12, the Road of Life across Lake Ladoga began to operate. And here on its cover stood the "Redut". In 1942 alone, the RUS-2 of the Ladoga air defense divisional area registered about 20,000 enemy overflights and warned of 38 massive raids on targets.
In 1944, the cruiser Molotov conducted a trial operation of the Mars-1 artillery fire radar control system. On the armament of the ships it was adopted under the name "Redan-1". At the same time, on one of the ships of the Pacific Fleet, a missile fire control radar was tested.
Since the end of the 1930s, the most advanced radio equipment on the ZIS-6 has become the secret impulse radar stations RUS-2 with the code designation Redut. The basis of the first ten Redut-40 samples were chassis with rotating radiating hardware with two antennas on the roof, which transmitted information to synchronously rotated receiving cabins based on GAZ-AAA.
At various times, army radio stations of various capacities and assignments were mounted on ZIS-6 vehicles, which were installed in parallel on the ZIS-5 and GAZ-AAA chassis. In 1940, a powerful short-wave duplex radio station RSB-F appeared in the Red Army , mounted in a streamlined, shielded all-metal van on the ZIS-6 chassis.
Subsequently, they were replaced by simplified single-antenna stations of the Redut-41/43 series on one vehicle. At first, their receiving and transmitting equipment was mounted in wooden box bodies on a ZIS-6 with a rotating antenna, which was powered by autonomous gas-electric units.
Despite many imperfections, the installation of the RUS-2 (Redut) made a significant contribution to the Victory.
|Frequency range||75 MHz|
|Pulse duration||12 µs|
|Max. range||150 km|
|Peak power||70-120 kW|
|Range accuracy||1.5 km|
|Azimuth accuracy||3 °|
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