RUS-1 Reven / Rhubarb
Radar as a new scientific and technical direction emerged in the Soviet Union in the early thirties. Its appearance was due to the need to improve the reliability of the country's air defense, as in the conditions of rapid development of aviation, traditional means of observation — optical sight, binoculars, range finders, sound detectors and searchlights — became ineffective. We needed instruments capable of detecting and monitoring aircraft at any time of the day and in any meteorological situation.
Talented Soviet scientists and engineers P. Oschepkov, D. Stogov, Y. Kobzarez, and others led the development of radio detection aerial targets. Experiments on radio detection of aircraft began in 1934, and by June 1941, several samples of radar stations had already been created.
The first of them, the RUS-1 (the first radio-trap of the aircraft), dubbed “Reven,” was tested in 1937 near Moscow. It was a station of continuous radiation and allowed to detect air targets when they crossed a certain line. It was adopted by the Red Army in 1939. The combat check of the radar station took place near Leningrad during the Winter War (1939-1940). By the beginning of the Patriotic War, 45 installations of the RUS-1 were manufactured, which worked mainly in the air defense system in the Far East and Transcaucasia.
The first positive result of the NIIIS KA activity in creating radio detection tools was the development of the Reveny system (RUS-1). In order to speed up the air defense equipment with radio detection equipment, the Rapid system, LEFI, tested in 1934, was the basis of the Rhubarb system. The system included: a transmitting station and two receiving stations mounted on vehicles.
The vehicles were located on the ground so that the transmitter was located in the center of the line between the receiving stations at a distance of 30-40 km from each receiving station (on one straight line). The transmitting station created aside receivers directional radiation in the form of a curtain ("fence"), at the intersection of which the planes were detected by receivers by the beating stations of direct and reflected signals recorded on a paper tape of a recording device — an undulator.
In October-December 1937, the Rveni system passed the first tests near Moscow, and after some refinement in the summer of 1938, it was subjected to detailed tests that established reliable detection of aircraft when they crossed the line of the transmitting and receiving stations during the day and night. The results obtained allowed us to present the future air defense system of air surveillance when using the system “Rohven”. The results of the tests were reported to the People’s Commissar of Defense, who instructed the Space Communications Administration to give an urgent order to industry for the production of an experimental batch of Roven systems 1. According to the contract of the Communications Administration of the Red Army, a radio plant manufactured the first batch of systems mounted on 16 vehicles in a six-month period. June 30, NIIIS KA accepted this batch.
In September 1939, by the order of the People’s Commissar of Defense, the Rhubarb system was adopted by the Air Defense Forces under the name RUS-1 (aircraft radio trap).
In the winter of 1939–1940 during the war with the White Finns, the RUS-1 system was tested in combat. To eliminate the surprise of the Finnish aviation raids on Leningrad around the city , a radio detection band was created using the RUS-1.However, in the conditions of the air defense of the front-line city, the system could not notify the VNOS service of enemy aircraft in advance. After the release of our troops in the area of ??Vyborg and Kexholm on the Karelian Isthmus, two detection lanes were created, which made it possible to specify the areas and directions of the flying aircraft.
Information about these aircraft were transmitted to GP VNOS of the Leningrad Air Defense Corps. It should be noted the high operational reliability of the RUS-1 system, which worked for five months without any malfunctions and repairs. In April 1940, the RUS-1 stations from observation posts on the Karelian Isthmus were relocated for further use in the Transcaucasus. Before the beginning of World War II, the radio factory produced 45 sets of the RUS-1 system, which during the war worked in the air defense system of the Far East and in Transcaucasia. Further production of the systems was discontinued, as the radar stations for early warning of the RUS-2, which had higher tactical and technical data and capabilities, began to arrive at the armament of the VNOS posts. By the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, in the air defense systems of Moscow and Leningrad, there were 41 radars RUS-1.
|Frequency range||75-83 MHz|
|Max. range||35 km|
|Peak power||300 W|
|Beam width in azimuth||25 °|
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