High Speed Rail - Soviet
"And what kind of Russians do not like fast driving?" - This quote from the poem of Nikolai Gogol is known, perhaps, everyone in Russia. This national trait of Russian character has always been the driving force in solving the problem of increasing the speed of movement. From the first days of the existence of rail transport, the race for speed began.
A high-speed train is a train traveling at a speed exceeding the average speed of rail service on these railways. The high-speed railway is understood as a new specialized railway line intended for trains with speeds of 200 to 400 km / h. Under the high-speed traffic - transportation of passengers with speeds from 140 to 200 km/h on the modernized existing lines. In Russia, high-speed trains are considered to be traveling at speeds of 140 km/h and above.
The development of high-speed and high-speed communication is defined by the "Program for the development of high-speed and high-speed traffic on the railway network of JSCo Russian Railways for the period up to 2020" and the "Strategy for the Development of Railway Transport in the Russian Federation until 2030". It is planned to create a network of high-speed and high-speed routes (high-speed lines - about 4,300 km and high-speed route - more than 7,500 km).
The Soviet concept was developed at the beginning of the 20th century, and the first experts for fast locomotives were built in 1930-1934. In the first half of the 1960s the first experiments on the operation of the Moscow-Leningrad high-speed line (experimentally) showed that the state of the technical means of the train allowed the maximum speed of the trains to reach 160 km / h. A continuous path from heavy rails was installed on this railway, specially designed for these purposes.
In the United States, New York Central's experimental M-497 turbojet train, also known by its nickname as the Black Beetle, was designed to bring the public back to the rails and as the title suggests it was powered using jet engines from an aircraft as its main propulsion. The unit actually worked and went on to set the land speed record for a light rail vehicle. While the one unit ultimately built proved successful during a weekend in the 1960s it was never seriously considered for wide-scale production and eventually scrapped during the early 1980s.
In 1970, an experimental jet train was built at the Kalininsky Carriage Works, a high-speed rail car (SVL). It should be noted that in the Soviet Union the use of jet aircraft engines in transport was given great importance. The body of the high-speed car was built on the basis of the motor head car ER22, which has head and tail fairings, and the undercarriage equipment and the chassis are closed on both sides with removable bulwarks.
The head car ER22-67 was specially built by the Riga Carriage Works for the SWL - that is, the drawings were usual, but special attention was paid to the quality of the workmanship. Initially, the SWL was painted in the colors ER22: cream-yellow top and red bottom. The length of the wagon with fairings was 28 meters. The car has two-axle carriages unusual for the head car of the Kalinin Carriage Works and VNIIV with pneumatic springs of the central suspension. Such trucks were earlier rolled up under the trailer cars of electric trains ER22.
The car was equipped with disc brakes with pneumatic and electropneumatic control. There are sandboxes for increasing traction of wheels with rails during braking. On the roof of the car in its head part on a special pylon are installed two aircraft turbojet engines of the Yak-40, which create the necessary traction force for the movement of the car. The weight of two engines is less than 1 ton. The maximum thrust force is 3000 kgf.
In 1971, the experimental car was tested on the Golutvin-Ozery line of the Moscow road, where a speed of 187 km / h was reached. Then in early 1972 the car traveled on the Novomoskovsk-Dneprodzerzhinsk section of the Pridneprovskaya Railway, where the maximum speed (160, 180, 200 km / h) gradually increased. The result of the tests was a speed of 249 km/h. In 1970 in the USSR there were no locomotives able to hold a speed of more than 230 km / h for a long time. The railway track also did not allow the development of speeds of more than 250 km/h.
In the late 1960s, the Ministry of Railways issued an instruction that by 1974 VNIIZhT, Giprotrans TEI, Mosgiprotrans and LIIZhT jointly developed a project for a special high-speed railway, Center-South. The road ran from Moscow to Kharkov and Lozovaya with branches to Simferopol and Rostov-on-Don, the maximum speed of trains on it was to be 250 km/h. The construction of the road was planned to be completed by 1990. The project was never fully implemented, since by that time the main task of the Ministry was to cope with the increased volumes of freight traffic.
Preparatory work on the creation of a high-speed motor-car train for the Moscow-Leningrad line began in 1965. In 1969, the Riga Carriages completed the design of a 14-car train, the construction of the first six-wing train was carried out by the plant in 1973-1974. in cooperation with fifty design bureaus and many factories of the Soviet Union. The electric train was designated ER200: electric train Riga, maximum speed 200 km/h.
The Electric train ER200 with a design speed of 200 km/h, designed for operation on the line Leningrad-Moscow, was the first domestic high-speed train. The legendary electric train ER200 is a visiting card of the railways in the 1980s and 1990s. The main train of the main railway line connecting the two capitals of the greatest country. ER200 - the first serious experience of high-speed traffic, the experience of complex tasks and beautiful engineering solutions, the experience of victories and failures.
In 1967, the technical task for the electric train was approved. For the first time in the national electric car building industry, the task was to use completely new technical solutions: trolleys with pneumatic central suspension, disk and magnetorel brakes, lightweight body made of aluminum alloys with a streamline form of the head part, modern thyristor control of traction engines in traction and rheostatic braking modes with electronic anti- an antiskid protection, an original two-stage automatically controlled current collector. The use of multi-valued automatic locomotive signaling, car repair, air conditioning, information system in passenger salons, bar-buffet was provided for the electric train. At the end of 1973, the first Soviet high-speed motor-car electric train, ER200, was manufactured at the Riga Carriage Works. Since 1976, on the highway experienced trips of the new electric train were conducted, and on November 16, 1979, his first flight with passengers took place. The regular operation of the ER200 electric train began only on March 1, 1984, when the train was already morally outdated and lagged far behind its foreign counterparts.
Taking into account the urgency of the organization of the national high-speed traffic, in 1988, on the initiative of the Ministry of Railways of the USSR, the State Committee for Science and Technology and the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the State Scientific and Technical Program "High-speed environmentally friendly transport" (Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of December 30, 1988 No1474). Based on the provisions of the VNIIZhT program, the Scientific Report was prepared, which substantiated all the main issues of creating high-speed highways (VSM) with a maximum speed of 300-350 km/h.
The most promising for implementation was the project to build high-speed "Center-South" lines between Leningrad, Moscow and the resorts of the Caucasus and the Crimea. In addition, high-speed transportation was planned to be developed in the following directions: Leningrad-Murmansk, Moscow-Smolensk, Moscow-Bryansk, Moscow-Voronezh, Moscow-Gorky and Leningrad-Helsinki.
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