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Floating Dock - Plavuchiy Dok

Although floating docks (PD) are not in the full sense of support vessels, but in fact are floating structures, belonging to ship repair and shipbuilding plants. Ship repair docks are divided into two types: dry and floating. The first are on land and able to withstand the ships of enormous weight. Therefore, they are mainly used for the construction of ships. In most cases, floating docks (PD) are intended for lifting ships from water and their subsequent repair.

By designation, they are divided into repair, transmission (lowering the ship into the water from a horizontal platform) and transport. PD are self-propelled and non-propelled. In this case, they can be moved behind the fleet using tugs. Due to this particular feature, over the years, the cheapest repair ship lifting vessels and an important element of the distributed base system remain. However, the service life of PD is much less than that of dry docks. In fact, a floating dock is a pontoon divided by bulkheads into ballast compartments or tanks. When pumping water from them, PD pumps up. When taking water, on the contrary, it sinks.

To carry out ship repair work it is necessary to provide access to the bottom of the vessel or ship. Ships of small displacement can be lifted with the help of a slip (inclined descender). The procedure is similar to launching, but in the opposite direction. For large vessels and ships, floating docks are used. The ship is put in such a dock, then with the help of pumps water is pumped out of the towers, and the dock gradually emerges. As a result, the object of repair is completely in the open air and hard surface. Further, with the help of cranes (installed on the dock, onshore or floating), repairs are carried out. Launching occurs in reverse order. umping water pumps are powered from diesel generators located on a floating dock, or from the coastal network. The second option is considered less reliable.

Throughout its history, floating docks have been and remain the cheapest repair craft. In addition, due to their buoyancy, they have maneuverability and therefore are particularly convenient for use in military ship repair (They can follow the fleet at all new locations based on it). At the same time, PDs have a much shorter service life compared to dry docks. Finally, all PDs have passport restrictions on the carrying capacity and geometric dimensions of the document to be documented, and dry docks are limited only by the geometric dimensions of the document to be documented and for them there is practically no concept of carrying capacity limited carrying capacity of cruisers.). Historically, that almost all the large dry docks in Russia and the USSR until 1945 belonged to the Navy, namely, its large shipyards. However, the situation changed in the 1950s, and many such plants, together with the docks, were transferred to SMEs.

This led to the curtailing of programs for the development of large dry ship repair docks in general. Only in the early 1970s, after the appearance of AVK as a part of the Navy, the program of developing dry docks for the Navy and MMF in the USSR was resumed. However, after 1991, this program was again discontinued when the most laborious work was done (both at the Northern Fleet and the Pacific Fleet, the pits for dry docks were completely dug, the size of which should have surpassed any dry docks in the United States, the huge cranes were designed and started and other equipment for docks).

Thanks to its mobility, PDs have become an important element of a distributed base system. Therefore, since the late 50s. repair PDs intended for dispersed basing became systematically constructed for the Navy. The first post-war repair PD was steel PD pr.782 with a payload (cargo capacity) of 8,000 tons, built in Holland in 1954. Then, at the Pallas CVD in 1954 and 1960, two reinforced concrete APs were constructed, pr.122A g / n 6 000 tons. Following this, for the Navy was built in 1965-1983. Many composite (steel and reinforced concrete) PD pr.823, pr.1758, pr.1760, pr.10090. These PDs were built on the Pallas CVD and on the CVD in Gorodets. They had g / n from 4 500 tons to 6 500 tons.

In addition, in 1967 at the Kronstadt Marine Plant, a steel PD was constructed according to 765 with a cargo capacity of 2,000 tons. As you can see, these were PDs capable of receiving only small ships, which at that time formed the basis of the surface and submarine fleet of the Soviet Navy.

The appearance of the anhydroacoustic coating on the submarine required the creation of special floating docks - slipways (PDE), within which favorable conditions were maintained for carrying out restoration work on this coating. In total, from 1973 to 1986, 5 PDEs (3 pr. 1777, 1 pr. 1780, 1 pr. 13560) were built at the Pallas and NWHL with a cargo capacity of 13,500 tons.

The entry into service of the Navy of the first AVK pr.1143 and the expected construction of AV pr.1153, pr.11435, pr.11437 and SSBN pr.941 required in the mid 70s. to start construction of heavy-duty vehicles (more than 30,000 tons).

However, it was impossible to order such PDs on domestic CVDs. Therefore, one PD of a cargo capacity of 80000 t was ordered and built in 1978 in Japan (for the Pacific Fleet), and another PD of the same capacity was ordered and built in 1980 in Sweden (for the Northern Fleet). At the same time, two APs with a payload of 29,300 tons were built in Yugoslavia (one in 1979 and the other in 1980).

On the other hand, some PDs could be used as a release device at shipbuilding plants (in 1975, it was designed in the Western design bureau for launching PD (SPD) pr.2121, load gauge 25 000 tons, which in 1980 was built on the NSR and left for operation), and as a vehicle for transporting deep-seated vessels along rivers, where many large CVDs were located (LAO, Krasnoe Sormovo, NWTC, etc.).

Another type of ship repair facilities are transport and transfer docks. They are mainly used not for repair, but for launching and lifting large vessels and ships. For example, such a transfer dock with a carrying capacity of 40 thousand tons was received by the Zvezda Far East shipyard under construction in the summer of 2018.

Although these transport floating docks (TPD) were not for repair, they were always part of the Navy and leased to SMEs. The fact is that with the help of the TPD, some warships could be redeployed on inland waterways (GDP) from one maritime theater to another.

The main developer of all TPD for the Navy of the USSR was the Western PKB. The first 6 TPDs were built in 1953-60 on the Red Sormovo CVD and the NWTC. These TPD p p. 2 8, 764 and 768 had a carrying capacity from 1 000 t to 1 700 t and were able to transport DPL pr.613, 633, 611 and SKR pr.50. The following 17 TPDs were built in 1958-83 by the same CVDs (n. 7 6 9, 769?, 1753, 1757, 1769, and 20230). The payload of these TFDs ranged from 3,700 tons to 8,500 tons. The TFDs were able to transport DPL and PLA p. 6 2 9, 659, 675, 670, 671, 667?, 667B, 945. In addition, several TPDs were built for SMEs.

For the shipyards of the Navy were also purchased PD, designed for other ministries and departments. So, for the shipyards several reinforced concrete PD with a capacity of 6,000 tons were purchased, which were built in 1955-60 in Kherson. In total, from 1945 to 1991, more than 50 repair workstations and about 23 TPDs were built for the Soviet Navy.

Thus, even a brief overview of the state of the auxiliary fleet of the Soviet Navy is destroyed by the legend about its disproportionality, inferiority, etc. Another thing is that in its development there was a lot of improvisation, haphazardness, incorrect prioritization, which, incidentally, was also characteristic of the combat fleet. However, the fact remains a fact: never has the domestic fleet had anything similar to what was created in a relatively short post-war period in its support system.

On 24 July 2018, a floating dock with a capacity of 40,000 tons arrived at the Russian Red Star Shipyard. The floating transfer dock is one of the shipyard's key elements. It is designed for launching from the slipway large-sized marine vessels, 300 m length and over 50 m width, with a launching weight up to 40,000 tonnes, as well as offshore facilities, like drilling platforms and their pieces (bases and topsides) In addition, the dock can be used to lift from water elements subject to repair and then transfer them to the berth or launch them, and also to tow a ship or a drilling platform element within the navigation area.



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Page last modified: 06-11-2018 18:59:07 ZULU