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Pantsyr-S1 Anti-Aircraft Artillery

The Pantsir-S1 (NATO reporting name SA-22 Greyhound) or "Carapace" / "Carapace-ME" (for export), is a short-to-medium range gun-missile system combining a wheeled vehicle mounting a fire-control radar and electro-optical sensor, two 30-mm cannons and up to 12 57E6 radio-command guided short-range missiles. The system is designed to acquire a variety of targets flying at altitudes from five meters to 10 kilometers and at the range from 200 meters to 20 kilometers.

The complex "Carapace-C1" (Model 1995) equipped with 12 missiles 9M335, appearance and layout similar to 9M311 SA-13 'Gopher' ZRPK missiles "Tunguska" (launch range increased to 12 km, the height of the targeted goals - to 8 km, SAM applied more powerful engine, increased weight of the warhead, and its size has increased to 90 mm, the diameter of the instrument compartment remained the same - 76 mm).

The Strela-10M3 deployed on the 9K35M3 TELAR from 1989 used the 9M333 missile, which was supplied with three channel seeker, the first infrared, the second using a visible band television contrast lock design, and the third a passive homing channel intended to home on the emissions from jamming equipment. The 9M333 included a new autopilot and IR background rejection processing, as well as a laser proximity fuse with eight rather than four lobes for engaging small targets,and a larger and more lethal warhead.

The first 10 Pantsir-S1 (SA-22 Greyhound) short-range gun and missile air defense systems entered service with the Russian Air Force on 18 March 2010. The Pantsir system was unveiled at the MAKS air show near Moscow in 1995 and has been thoroughly modified since then. It is expected to replace the obsolete Tunguska air defense system in the Russian army. Pantsir-S1 could be mobile or occupy a fixed air defense emplacement. The system combines two 30mm anti-aircraft guns and 12 surface-to-air missiles, and can simultaneously engage two separate targets, ranging from aircraft to missiles and guided bombs.

The Pantsyr S1 short-range air defense missile-gun system will replace the Tunguska M1 complex in the Russian military following the successful completion of testing. Pantsyr-S1, also known as Pantsir-S1 or Panzir (all meaning "Shell" in English), is a short-range, mobile air defense system, combining two 30mm anti-aircraft guns and 12 surface-to-air missiles. It can simultaneously engage two separate targets, ranging from aircraft to missiles and guided bombs. The Pantsyr S1 short-range air defense system is designed to provide point defense of key military and industrial facilities and air defense support for military units during air and ground operations.

The word Maile comes from the old French for chain. As the name implies, this armor is constructed by the linking of metal rings. The Russians distinguished three types of Maile armor. The Russians used a Hauberk of flat rings which was distinguished by the name "Baidana". The "Kolchuga", which may simply be translated as Maile, is of a loose weave, using large rings. The Hauberk of tight weave, using smaller and thicker rings is called "Panzir Kolchuzhnik", which may be translated as Armour of Maile. The Panzir Kolchuzhnik was often reinforced with small disks of bronze or steel and had decorative hook-fasteners of the same metal. Both the Kolchuga and the Panzir Kolchuzhnik were made of round rings.

The system was tested during joint Air Force and Air Defense Forces exercises at the Ashukuk testing grounds in southern Russia. The Russian Air Force will receive the first Pantsyr S1 complexes in 2008.

The integrated missile and gun armament creates an uninterrupted engagement zone of 18 to 20 km in range and of up to 10 km in altitude. Immunity to jamming is attained via a common multimode and multispectral radar and optical control system operating in the decimetric, centimetric, millimetric and IR wave bands.

It can fire on the move, while the Tunguska system can deliver only gun fire on the move. The universal nature of target engagement includes a wide range of air targets: aircraft and helicopters before they fire their weapons, small-size guided missiles, as well as lightly armoured ground targets and manpower.

The automatic mode of battle performance of a separate combat vehicle or several combat vehicles acting as part of an air defence unit, improves time characteristics and reduces psychological and physiological loads on crew members. The great number of targets can be engaged in a short space of time due to the short reaction time, the high speed of the SAM flight and the availability of two independent guidance channels operating in a wide sector (90 x 90 in azimuth and elevation).

Autonomous operation capability is due to the fact that each combat vehicle contains equipment for detection, tracking and engagement of targets. The command system of SAM guidance ensures high effectiveness of the small agile missile.

The gun armament comprises two 2A38 twin-barrel automatic guns of the Tunguska air defence system capable of engaging air and ground targets up to 4 km in range and up to 3 km in altitude.

Depending on local conditions in the area of combat operations and variants of combat employment, the Pantsyr-S1 system can operate in one of the following modes.

Autonomous operation - Each combat vehicle operates independently and ensures the implementation of the full operating cycle: search, detection, identification, dangerous target selection, target designation, supplemental search, lockon, tracking and target engagement by missiles and guns.

Combined operation - The battery operates as a unit of six combat vehicles interconnected by telecoded communication. Each combat vehicle accomplishes the full cycle of battle performance against selected targets and sends information on the selected targets to the other battery's vehicles that exclude them from the list of the targets to be handled.

Battery command post control - Each of the six combat vehicles accomplishes all the stages of battle performance beginning from acquiring target designation data from the command post.

Leader-follower - The battery operates as a unit of six combat vehicles, one of which is assigned as a leader and the others as followers. The leading combat vehicle operates as a command post and also performs the functions of a combat vehicle as in the case of autonomous operations.

Each follow-on combat vehicle receives target designation data from the leader and operates under the control of the battery command post in all other respects.

As of mid-2007 Russia had signed Pantsyr S1 sales contracts with the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Jordan, and Syria, and was in talks with Algeria on the deliveries of this highly sought-after weapons system. "We have concluded $2.6 billion worth of contracts for the delivery of this system," Russia's KBP Instrument Design Bureau, which manufactures the system, said in 2006. The United Arab Emirates ordered 50 Pantsyr-S1 systems in May 2000, half to be mounted on tracked GM-352M1E vehicles from Minskiy Traktorniy Zavod of Belarus and half on wheeled chassis. The first batch of was delivered in November 2004.

On 23 May 2007 a first deputy prime minister denied that Russia had approved thesale of its Pantsyr-S1 mobile air defense system from Syria to Iran. "We have received no requests from Syria for supplies to Iran, not a single bullet," Sergei Ivanov said at a news conference in Moscow. "Russia engages in military-technical cooperation with all states that strictly abide by international law... For any arms that Russia sells to its foreign partners, contracts are signed only after the receipt of a certificate from the end user. These weapons cannot then be re-exported and supplied to third countries without the permission of the seller, in this case the Russian Federation." Media earlier reported that Damascus had agreed to sell some of the Pantsyr short-range air defense missile-gun systems it is buying from Russia to Tehran.

An upgraded version of the Pantsir-S short-range air defense system will enter service with the Russian armed forces by the end of 2014, a senior air force official said on 23 April 2014. "A program to modernize serial Pantsir-S systems, including by adopting new missiles, is currently under way. We expect them to enter service by the end of this year,' deputy commander of the Russian Air Force's Anti-Aircraft Missile Troops, Col. Yuri Muravkin, said at the Ashuluk training grounds in southern Russia The new system will feature better electronics and tracking systems and will be equipped with upgraded missiles, increasing its maximum range by 50 percent, from 20 kilometers (over 12 miles) to 30 kilometers (almost 19 miles) The ground version of the Pantsir is a combined gun-missile air defense system featuring a wheeled vehicle mounting a fire-control radar and electro-optical sensor, two 30-mm cannons and up to a dozen 57E6 radio-command-guided short-range missiles. The system is designed to take on a variety of low-flying targets, including cruise missiles and aircraft.

Brazil is apt to purchase Russian Pantsir air defense systems as early as in the first half of 2016, Brazilian Ambassador to Russia Jose Vallim Guerreiro said 29 June 2015. "A general decision on the purchase has been madeAs far as I know, the deal is expected in the first half of 2016, Guerreiro told RIA Novosti. In a January interview with RIA Novosti the ambassador had suggested that the contract on the delivery of Russian Pantsir-S1 air defense systems to the Latin American country could be signed in the beginning of 2015.

Guerreiro explained that this delay was mainly because the 2015 budget did not provide enough financial resources to pay for armaments. He added that the work is currently underway to include a corresponding provision in the 2016 budget. The two countries launched negotiations on Pantsir deliveries in 2012.


The countries of the Middle East are interested in the naval version of the Pantsir-ME anti-aircraft missile and artillery complex. This was announced 25 February 2019 by TASS director for international cooperation and regional policy Rostec Victor Kladov. "We see a huge interest in this product from the Middle Eastern countries and not only. We are sure that Pantsir-ME as the adapted version for the sea of ??the famous Pantsir-C1 will have very big market prospects, but today some agreements to speak prematurely, the demonstration of the complex took place only a few days ago, "said Kladov.

"Pantsir-ME" was first introduced abroad in the framework of the international military-technical exhibition IDEX-2019, which was held in Abu Dhabi. Earlier, in the holding company High-precision complexes (part of Rostec), TASS clarified that the complex can be installed on all types of warships - from a missile boat with a displacement of about 500 tons to an aircraft carrier.

The complex is capable of hitting air targets flying at speeds of up to 1000 m / s, the range of destruction of targets of most modern combat aircraft with a slant range is up to 20 km with rocket weapons and up to 4 km with artillery weapons.

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