Object 287 Rocket Tank
Simultaneously with ChTZ, the development work on the creation of a medium tank with a guided weapon was assigned to the Leningrad Kirov Plant by the Order of the USSR Council of Ministers February 28, 1961). The overall coordination of the work and the design of some of the important elements of this machine was entrusted to the design office of the Leningrad Kirov Plant under the direction of J. Ya. Kotin. A missile for the tank should have been created by AE OKB-16. Nudelman. The development of a weapon stabilization system was entrusted to TsNII-173, and TsKIB and GSKB-47 were responsible for creating artillery weapons and ammunition.
In 1962-64, the Leningrad Kirov Plant built a pair of prototype “Object 287” tanks of the first configuration, using 301-P missiles and small-caliber guns. In May 1965, the assembly of two other machines of an updated type, completed with the Typhoon missile system and Lightning guns, began. There is reason to believe that these prototypes were rebuilt from existing prototypes.
In accordance with the Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers dated February 17, 1961 and the order of the USSR Committee of Ministers of the USSR Ministry of Defense dated March 16, 1961, the LKZ began to create a medium tank with guided weapons and enhanced anti-nuclear and anti-cumulative protection. The tank was given the designation "Object 287". In January 1962, a preliminary design was considered at a meeting of the section of the scientific and technical council of the Civil Code of the USSR USSR Ministry of Defense, and in October of the same year the technical design of the tank. According to the draft scheme of the overall layout of the tank differed from the classical scheme of the crew of two people in front of the hull, the absence of the tower and the placement in the middle of the hull ATGM with a launcher coming out of the fighting compartment when firing. The project provided for the unification of components and assemblies of the power plant, transmissions and running gear with developed components and assemblies for an experimental tank "Object 432" of the plant Malysheva in Kharkov.
Initially, it was supposed to arm an ATGM tank with a specially developed experimental 140-mm guided missile, which had a factory index of 301-P, and two 23-mm automatic guns. The flight speed of the 301-P missile was increased from 150 to 250 m / s compared to the speed of the Phalanga anti-tank missile system. When firing, the launcher was moved out of the hull for 10-12 seconds and therefore was vulnerable to enemy firearms.
Construction of two prototypes with such a composition of weapons began in 1962 and lasted until the spring of 1964 and in April-October of this year they passed factory tests. Next, two prototypes went to the factory tests and showed their potential. It turned out that the missile and cannon armament of the prospective tank did not fully meet the requirements. The missile showed insufficient characteristics, and the guns did not allow it to be strengthened in the context of fighting armored vehicles.
According to the results of factory tests, "Object 287" has been significantly reworked. Instead of the 301-P missile, they proposed using a more sophisticated ammunition from the Typhoon complex. Automatic guns should be replaced with more powerful weapons of increased caliber. Soon, LKZ and joint venture employees formed a new image of the rocket tank. It is in this form that "Object 287" remained.
In both versions of the project, the tracked chassis of the Medium 432 Object T-64 (T-64) was recently developed by Kharkov specialists. The developers of the Object 287 project used the maximum possible number of ready-made components and in fact rebuilt only the combat compartment of the existing armored vehicle. Enclosure with protection, power plant, etc. remained the same. The layout of the internal volumes also did not undergo major changes: in the front of the case there was a control compartment with the places of the driver and commander, in the center - the fighting compartment, in the stern - the power plant.
The equipment of the Typhoon anti-tank missile complex 9K11 with 9M11 missiles was located in the center of the fighting compartment. Directly under the dome of the tower, under the opening hatch, was a mobile launcher. Before the shot, she had to lift the rocket and take it out of the hull. After the shot, the guide was returned inside the tank for reloading. Most of the fighting compartment was given under the mechanized laying of missiles. It managed to fit 15 products 9M11, as well as the means of their submission to the launcher during recharging. In laying the rocket was placed tail forward along the direction of the tank. When lifting the launcher rotated around a horizontal axis.
The missile complex "Typhoon" was a rocket with radio-command guidance. The rocket received a cylindrical body with a diameter of 140 mm, as well as a set of folding wings and X-shaped rudders. The head of the rocket was given under the cumulative fragmentation warhead. She punched up to 500 mm of homogeneous armor and formed a field of fragments, equivalent to a 100-mm high-explosive projectile. The solid propellant engine accelerated the rocket to speeds of the order of 250 m / s and made it possible to attack targets at ranges from 500 m to 4 km.
The 9M15 guided missile had a mass of 40 kg, a caliber of 140 mm and a maximum airspeed of 525 m / s. The armor penetration of the cumulative warhead of the rocket was equal to 500 mm, the fragmentation effect was the same as that of the 100-mm high-explosive fragmentation projectile. Guided missiles were fired at ranges from 500 to 4000 m. Two 73-mm smooth-bore guns 2A25 "Lightning" and 7.62-mm machine guns of E-2T (single tank guns of Nikitin design) were used as auxiliary weapons in the tank. soon replaced by PKT machine guns.
In accordance with TTT, the Zagorsk Optical and Mechanical Plant will develop an “Object 287” for the tank and produce a prototype of an overnight illuminated driver’s observation device (the “Klin” code). The device was not accepted for service, since the tests of the device installed in the tank showed that it was impossible to drive a tank at night with the required speeds due to the large inertia of the terrain image.
To quickly resolve issues related to the development and fine-tuning of the tank, on May 14, 1965, the Council of Chief Designers was created, headed by LKZ Chief Designer J. Ya. Kotin. For the joint tests, two more prototypes were manufactured (No. 1 and No. 5), and sample No. 3 was intended for testing two gas-turbine engines installed in a tank. In addition, a set of armor corps and turrets was made, intended for conducting shelling tests.
There were no automation tools in the control system of the 9K11 Typhoon complex, which seriously hampered the work of the commander and reduced the effectiveness of the shooting. Tests have shown that problems with manual guidance do not allow to obtain a decisive advantage over tanks of a potential enemy at ranges up to 2 km. At long distances, the advantage was ensured only by the missile's range.
Semi-automatic guns 2A25 "Lightning" did not show the desired characteristics of the range and accuracy of the fire. Aerodynamic stabilization shells could pierce the claimed 300 mm of armor, but the probability of hitting the standard target was insufficient. Machine guns, in turn, showed the desired results, but the enemy's living force was not the priority target of the rocket tank.
There were problems with the new optical equipment. So, the Sapphire sight required fine-tuning and turned out to be quite difficult to operate. The driver’s night vision device was also not perfect. It turned out that it had a large image inertia. This actually excluded the possibility of driving a car at night at high speeds.
The “Object 287” tank was not put into service, since at firing ranges of up to 2,000 m guided missiles did not ensure superiority in firepower over foreign tanks with a 105-mm rifled gun. In addition, the introduction of an additional stabilization system, the complication of the fire control system, the presence of five weapons reduced the reliability of the machine. Visibility towards the stern of the tank crew was poor.
In terms of technical and combat characteristics, the new missile tank “Object 287” was of no interest to the armed forces. To eliminate the identified deficiencies, it was necessary to recycle the mass of components and assemblies, and in some cases it might be necessary to replace some equipment with new samples. A similar refinement of the existing armored vehicles was considered inexpedient.
On September 3, 1968, the Council of Ministers decided to stop all work on the new rocket tank due to the availability of more successful alternatives. Instead, it adopted the more successful "Object 150" or IT-1 "Dragon". At the same time, the leadership determined the further development of military equipment. The subject of guided missile armament for tanks was now proposed to be developed within the framework of the Object 434 project. The future medium / main tank T-64A was supposed to receive the Cobra 9K112 guided weapons complex. A few years later this project was successfully implemented, and a new type of missile was brought to operation in the army.
|Launcher||Two-Plane Stabilized Pop-Up Launcher with 15 x 9M15 “Typhoon” ATGM|
|Guns||2 x 73mm 2A25 Grom (8 round revolving drum for each gun, plus 8 more in stowage) with PG-15V Spear.|
|Coaxial||2 x PKT Machine Guns|
|Combat Weight||36.5 metric tons|
|Ground Clearance||450 mm|
|Engine||5TD Opposed Piston Diesel (700 hp)|
|Highway Speed||66 km/hr|
|Highway Radius||500 kilometers|
|Notes||Based on the Object 430 hull. The commander sat on the right side of the turret and doubled as the gunner. The driver sat on the left side of the turret. The engine was in front. Could fire ATGMs while moving at 20-30 km/hr.|
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