Vladimir Mikhailovich Myasischev
Vladimir Mikhailovich Myasischev (09/28/1902 - 10/14/1978) - Soviet aircraft designer, doctor of technical sciences, professor, Major General Engineer, was born 15 (28) September 1902 in the city of Efremov, Tula region. At that time, 10,088 people lived in Efremov, there were 7 churches, a male and female gymnasium, a real and a religious school. There were 34 factories and factories, with 226 workers. Among the sights of Efremov were many orchards on the outskirts. They lived in Efremov by trade, mainly bread, flour, alcohol and fruits.
The year 1920 was a turning point in the fate of Vladimir. The craving for education turned out to be above all and Myasishchev enters the Moscow Higher Technical School (MVTU named after Bauman). Fellow students of Vladimir Mikhailovich at the Moscow Higher Technical School, friends and acquaintances of his student years characterized him with the following words: “A firm, purposeful person, in fact, a complete character, a strong-willed nature." The theme of the graduation project Vladimir chose "All-metal fighter". The head of the graduation project was A.N. Tupolev. After graduating from the Moscow Higher Technical School named after Bauman (1926) he worked in the design office (KB) Tupolev (consisting of Central hydrodynamic Institute, TsAGI), participated in the creation of airplanes TB-1, TB-3, ANT -20 "Maxim Gorky".
Since 1934, he was the head of a brigade of the experimental aircraft (KB-6) of the design department of an experienced construction sector TsAGI, which torpedo bomber ANT-41 (T-1) was established in 1936. In 1937-1938, the chief designer of Experimental Design Bureau (EDB), the factory number 84 (the city of Khimki Moscow Region), established for the processing of documentation for implementation into production of licensed aircraft DC-3 (Li-2).
He was unreasonably subjected to repression in 1938-1940 and was detained while working in the central design office number 29 (CKB-29) in the special department of the NKVD SRT-100 V.M.Petlyakova (wing brigade chief). At the end of 1939 Myasischev proposed a draft long-range bomber "102" with a pressurized cabin. For its development in the CDB was established KB Myasischev is headed in the years 1940-1943. In the act of state tests DVB-102 (long-range high-altitude bomber) noted in 1942 that the DVB-102 was the first Russian bomber with pressurized cabin, providing normal physiological conditions for the crew. For the first time in the Soviet aircraft landing gear were used in the construction of a bomber with nose wheel, small arms and cannon with remote control, thin wing with a relative thickness of 10 to 16% and built tanks-caissons. Folds bomb hatch 5.7 meters long opened up inside. The maximum bomb load was 3 tons. Flight tests of the aircraft were carried out until 1946.
After the death of V.M.Petlyakova, 1943 Myasischev - chief designer and head of research and development departments in the factory number 22 in Kazan on modifications and mass production of a dive bomber Pe-2 and the factory number 482 in Moscow, on the final design of the aircraft DVB-102 . In early 1944, it was designed by the daily dive bomber Pe-2I with flying faster than the speed of German fighters, capable of carrying the fuselage bomb weighing one ton to destroy the powerful fortifications. Pe-2I became the base for the creation of a number of experimental aircraft bombers Pe-2M, SB-108, long-range fighter escort DIS.
Alexey Ivanovich Shahurin was People's Commissar of Aviation during the War (1940-1946). Years pass, but memory remains. Myasishchev is remembered by so many who came in contact with him and close, and not particularly close. Such is the uniqueness, charm of his personality, although he did not belong to the number of people open, all popular. Here is how the commissar of the aviation industry was imprinted in the memory of the People's Commissar of the Air in the years of the Great Patriotic War (the People's Commissar from 1940 to 1946) A.I. Shahurin look of the designer:
"A strong impression was made by Vladimir Mikhailovich Myasishchev. He began to design in the student days and immediately attracted the attention of A.N. Tupolev, under whose leadership he then worked for several years. Vladimir Mikhailovich happened to participate in the creation of heavy bombers. They became the main business of his life. A talented engineer, he headed the design bureau on the eve of the war.
"Vladimir Mikhailovich was a man of a somewhat different storehouse than Tupolev. Externally dry, closed, he did not go to rapprochement, until he felt sincerity, warmth, human relations. Restrained was in conversation. Not being distracted by any extracurricular activities, on secondary topics, Myasishchev answered only substantive questions, so it seemed that he was completely absorbed in the thought with which he had come. The subsequent communication with him did not dispel my initial impression, even strengthened him. Vladimir Mikhailovich remembered me exactly this: strict, restrained. However, more than once I was convinced that, despite the external dryness, he skillfully led a large team." In 1945, at the Myasishcheva began manufacturing layout RB-17- with the Jumo-004 turbojet. But in February 1946, the OKB was disbanded, which was motivated by his "low-impact". Buldings, resources and staff OKB-482 crossed the SV Ilyushin. Development of the RB-17 made it possible to quickly create a jet of IL-22.
After the closure of OKB-482 and expulsion from the Aviation Industry, Myasischev went to work at the Moscow Aviation Institute as dean of the aircraft building department. In the years 1946-1951 he was Head of the Department of aircraft design, the dean of the Faculty of Aircraft Manufacturing Moscow Aviation Institute (since 1947 - professor). Not working well with the party top of the institute, he was demoted and transferred to the head of the department of aircraft engineering. Here he became closely acquainted with the aviation engineer G.N. Nazarov, who later became his deputy. An important step towards the return of these highly qualified specialists to the industry was Myasishchev's proposal to draw up a plan of research work of the Moscow Aviation Institute together with TsAGI on promising issues of aircraft construction.
In the early 1950s Myasischev submitted to the Government a proposal on the establishment of strategic aircraft with flight range of 11-12 thousand kilometers. Stalin accepted this offer, and March 24, 1951 decision of the Government was reconstituted OKB-23 chief designer Myasishcheva. The aircraft, equipped with four turbojets and received the designation M-4, was designed and built in just one year and 10 months after the organization of the OKW. On the M-4 worked out a system of aircraft refueling, "Rod-cone". A further development of the M-4 was the plane ZM jet strategic bomber with four turbojet. The plane had the same pattern as that of the M-4, but has been improved aerodynamics. On airplanes M-4 and ZM is set 19 world records.
Since 1956 Myasischev was a general designer. Myasishchev went on a path already tested at the beginning of the fifties: he invited graduates from aviation universities to the design bureau. Having relied on youth, he was not mistaken. Newly made designers, engineers under the guidance of experienced senior comrades were imbued with the complexity of the tasks assigned to them, got down to business, not experiencing fear of possible failures. Failures, mistakes, of course, at first happened, but in exchange experience was gained, "the son of difficult mistakes." The creative growth of specialists in design bureaus at Myasishchev went faster than that of other aviation leaders.
In the mid-1950s before the EDO was given the task: to create a supersonic strategic bomber. Experience the creation of such aircraft was not under the supervision of EDO Myasishcheva have developed new methods of design. The selected layout - long thin fuselage and a thin delta wing with four turbojet - required the use of non-standard and original design solutions. The aircraft, dubbed M-50 made its first flight in 1959. Develops and supersonic strategic cruise missile M-40 "Buran" class "surface-to-surface". The development of this project has been established cruise missile air-launched M-44, designed for supersonic missile weapons M-52 (RCC-52) and M-56. For covert low-level air defense effort to develop strategic supersonic M-57. It was the first in the USSR passenger version of the supersonic aircraft - the M-55. A bomber projects Yasu ( "30", M-60) and still not well known.
In Kazomi Supreme Soviet of the USSR from July 12, 1957 Myasishcheva Vladimir Mikhailovich was awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labor, the Order of Lenin and the gold medal "Hammer and Sickle." Vladimir Mikhailovich was not even sixty - a frantic, ruthless work in relation to himself, which, no matter how hard it is, gives great pleasure. On the eve of his daughter's wedding, Vladimir Mikhailovich felt pain in his heart. Decided to take a break. The next day it got worse. Doctors diagnosed an acute attack of angina pectoris. The requirement of physicians is rest and once again rest. A man of the system, Myasishchev remained true to himself. As soon as he felt better, he began to walk according to the schedule, to do physical exercises. A month later, the doctors recognized that the heart had become much stronger. Myasishchev again plunged headlong into the life of the team.
In 1957-1960 years in KB Myasishcheva also projects the first Soviet spaceplane VKA-23 (M-48) have been developed. But in the fall of 1960 OKB-23 was disbanded and staff transferred to the DB-52 Chelomei working on the missile and space topics.
In the years 1960-1967 Myasischev was Head of TsAGI. Vladimir Mikhailovich was painfully worried about what had happened. The design bureau under his leadership made excellent machines, striking with originality, unconventional design thinking. And the position of the head of TsAGI? It is more suitable for an academician than for a practical aviation worker. When Myasishchev was asked how he perceived the new appointment, he sharply replied: "Imagine a man without any hearing, who became the director of the Bolshoi Theater." It is said, of course, in the hearts: "hearing", if we mean the ability for scientific development, Vladimir Mikhailovich possessed in full. And, however, you can understand it: it was hard to part with direct design activities.
In November 1966, the newly recreated EDB Myasischev and became chief designer of the Experimental machine-building plant (EMZ) in the town of Zhukovsky, Moscow region formed on the territory of the former flight test and development base of OKB-23. Here he led the experimental work carried out to increase the flight range of aircraft due to laminar flow, for the use of composite materials, as well as the strategic bombers designed M-18 and M-20.
If Myasishchev went on business, he would certainly take the necessary specialists with him,” recalls Yakov Borisovich Nodelman. - Unlike other leaders, he liked to show his assistants. We were known at the very top. Thus, Vladimir Mikhailovich saved time - sometimes we were called to meetings, and he used the free hours to work in the design bureau. He nominated us, and he had no idea to be afraid for his authority. This is the whole of Myasishchev - he did not divide employees into important and unimportant. He surrounded himself with strong personalities who knew how to defend their opinions, encouraged people, raised them to their own level, not being afraid to undermine their influence as a leader.
Creative disputes and discussions were the norm in the Design Bureau. Often they were transferred from the working environment to the dining room next to the Chief's office - to the realm of the unsurpassed chef Clara Alekseevna Lagunova. Myasishchev specially organized such a micro-dining room so that he could communicate with colleagues during breaks. He came up with the original form of the dining table - in the form of a horseshoe. This allowed a large number of people to sit comfortably. Vladimir Mikhailovich wanted everyone to be together during dinner, to see each other's faces. In addition, it was more convenient for the cook to serve food.
As part of the NGO "Lightning", in which the company was incorporated in 1976 in the EMR designed crew cab, a comprehensive system of emergency escape, life support system and thermal control of the orbital shuttle "Buran". On the flight test based EMR they implemented complex atmospheric flight tests on an analogue ship "Buran".
In the years 1958-1966 he was a member of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. He lived and worked in the hero-city Moscow. He retained in his old age his favorite expressions: “damn lousy” (as already mentioned, perhaps, one of the strongest curses in his mouth), “typical three-year-old” (about an incapable person), “swindlers” (about dishonest people), “ for order ”,“ thanks for yesterday's cutlets ”(regarding the work submitted late),“ my joy ”(appeal to my wife). Myasischev met his seventy-fifth anniversary not in the best form. In the summer of 1977, he spent two months in the hospital, in the fall he went to work, but his strength was no longer the same. He died October 14, 1978. He was buried in the Novodevichy Cemetery in Moscow (section 7).
Major-General Engineering Air Service (08.19.1944), Doctor of Technical Sciences (1959), Professor (1947), Honored Scientist of the RSFSR (1972). He was awarded three Orders of Lenin, Order of October Revolution, Order of Suvorov, 2nd degree, Order of Red Banner of Labor and medals. The winner of the Lenin Prize (1957).
Vladimir Mikhailovich never walked the beaten track, everywhere he looked for new solutions that lead to significant improvements in aircraft performance. To a lesser extent, he was inclined to evolutionary paths in his work, to a greater extent to revolutionary leaps, giving qualitatively more advanced designs. At the same time, he never assumed unreasonable risk, he always relied on the achievements of science, and was widely attracted to experiment. He managed to implement complex technical solutions in a short time, sometimes in record short.
In 1981 the Myasishcheva Experimental Machine-Building Plant was named after him.
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