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Navy Radio Technical Service
KSA - Complex of Automation Tools

The main tasks of the Radio Technical Service of the Navy are the organization and management of the lighting system of the Navy and the implementation of measures for its construction and development, the preparation of proposals for improving the information support of naval forces control processes, the creation and operation of a unified state lighting system for surface and underwater conditions (EGSONPO ).

The Navys radio engineering service is part of the Navys High Command and is intended to organize the creation and equipping of ships, ships, coastal units and facilities of the Navy with electronic equipment, organize and manage the lighting system, organize and manage electronic and radio engineering support and technical operation of electronic equipment for ships and ships , coastal units and facilities of the Navy.

In the late 1950s, the US military doctrine acquired a clearly offensive character. The United States began to intensively develop the last component of the triad of strategic nuclear forces - nuclear submarines with ballistic missiles on board. In response to this, in the soviet Union, in accordance with its military doctrine, intensive construction of naval strategic deterrent forces (nuclear submarines with ballistic missiles on board). A little later, no less intensive construction of forces ensured the combat stability of the atomic multi-purpose submarines, and then general-purpose naval forces. Naval ships, submarines and aircraft of the Navy began to receive new weapons systems, which possessed great power, range and accuracy of the enemy's defeat.

In these conditions, for the effective use of the Navy, it was necessary to equip the military command and control bodies with modern highly efficient means of automation, communication and data exchange. It was necessary to automate both the day-to-day and the combat activities of the sea strategic deterrent forces and general-purpose forces at various degrees of readiness, including in conditions of warfare. A similar picture was emerging in the armed forces (armed forces) of the country as a whole.

The first works on the creation of means for automating the process of control of a submarine and a surface ship were carried out in the 1950s at the Naval Research Institute. Then, in order to improve the effectiveness of control, separate radioelectronic control automation equipment was installed on warships, but this did not yield significant results, since they were not a single system, had low reliability and operational efficiency. To address these issues, scientists of the Academy of Sciences academicians AI. Berg and BV Gnedenko successfully carried out research, the results of which have significantly improved the efficiency of shipborne radio electronic means.

The appearance of elements of computer technology and the first digital computers made it possible to conduct research on the possibility of their use in experimental weapons. This period is characterized by reacting Scientific closely on capacity ship ACS SIC 24th to the 1st, 9th, 14th, 28th and 34th NII MO, with the Institute for automation and remote control AN headed academician VA . Trapeznikov, the Institute of Cybernetics of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, headed by academician V.M. Glushkov, Institute of Precision Mechanics and Computer Science, headed by Academician S.A. Lebedev, and others.

As a result of research and development work, by 1969 it became clear that the capabilities of computer facilities (SVT) existing at that time and natural resource constraints, did not allow implementation all these areas of automation in full. The result was a radical solution, focused on the automation of deterrence forces in different degrees of readiness, including in conditions of conducting military operations. From that moment the development of the first stage of the automated control systems [ACS] of the Armed Forces - the command system of combat control of the Armed Forces, one of the subsystems of which was the command system of combat control of the Navy - began.

The organization of the development and creation of the command subsystem was based on the unification and technological independence of the hardware and software base, which was created throughout the country, and a single stack of protocols for processing and transmitting information, targeting military command and control agencies of the main types of armed forces - ground forces, aviation and navy . Thus, the Navy system was created on a single hardware, software and protocol basis for the ACS VS.

The command system of the Navy was created in the following stages:

  • development of automation complexes for command posts of 4 types - Navy, fleet, flotilla and division level, as well as KSA of the coastal communication facility and complex of technical means for surface ships and submarines (1971- 1976);
  • Creation of prototypes of the listed products and carrying out of their preliminary tests on the stands of the industry (1974-1976);
  • equipping the 1st stage of the pilot section of the Navy system (as part of the 1st stage of the experimental section of the aircraft system) and conducting preliminary tests (1977-1978);
  • deployment of a pilot site in its entirety (as part of the pilot section of the VS system) and conducting state tests (1977-1979);
  • Conducting the equipping of the Navy KSA and CCC facilities under a separate program (1979-1985);
  • Creation of prototypes of 3 types of CSA for control of the forces of naval aviation, including the naval missile carrier (1981-1989).

At the time of the completion of the development, the command system of combat control was unique, having no analogous system. Its peculiarity was strict requirements for reliability of operation (round-the-clock continuous operation with permissible stops no more than 1-2 minutes per day). Another feature was the need for guaranteed delivery of messages at a given time (this time was different depending on the type and size of messages). In addition, it was necessary to provide stealth management, eliminating unauthorized use and modification of information. This required the creation of a unique hardware and software base within the system of the Armed Forces.

The Navy as a kind of armed forces is characterized by a number of significant features, the most important of which are:

  • heterogeneity and a large number of controlled objects with a huge destructive potential; these objects are at a considerable distance from each other, including outside the country;
  • the presence of several control levels and the corresponding hierarchy of functions and authorities, differing requirements for efficiency, reliability, information needs, etc .;
  • the need to carry controllable objects of alert duty and combat service both in the military and in peacetime in various environments (on land, on water, under water, in the air).

These features complicated the solution of these problems. In particular, special solutions were required for structuring the subsystem, building a system for exchanging data with ships and submarines of a global scale. In addition, the specifics of the use of the Navy forces required significant efforts to provide information management bodies on the status of its forces, enemy forces and the environment, which led to information diversity and the need to handle large flows of poorly formalized messages. A certain problem was the adaptation of the basic solutions of the aircraft system to the characteristics of the Navy and the adjustment of typical CSA to the features of specific control points.

The command system of combat control of the Navy was to provide:

  • continuous round-the-clock operation in real time;
  • automation of a large number of management processes that differ in their requirements for reactivity, reliability, information needs;
  • Processing of message streams of variable intensity, including with information overloads;
  • compatibility with the ACS of the aircraft and ACS of the aircraft;
  • ability to function in case of failure (destruction) of a part of the system.

In addition, the subsystem should provide for effective protection against unauthorized use of controlled forces and weapons, and its creation should provide for the possibility of developing and adapting to the changes in the principles of command and control, the military-political situation and the structure of the Navy.

The command subsystem of combat control of the Navy was created on several principles.

1. Systematicity, which allows to consider it as a subsystem within the ACS of the Armed Forces, as well as allowing its decomposition into subsystems controlling the types of forces of the Navy and subsystems of control levels. According to this principle, the process of automated control of the naval forces' families is designed to ensure the main goals of the USSR Armed Forces management; At the same time, the authorities and spheres of responsibility of the KP naval units of various levels are taken into account, methods of transferring control between KPs without loss of continuity of control are developed; a coordinated system of quality indicators has been determined, which makes it possible to estimate the user value of the subsystem, suggested rules for interaction of the Navy subsystem with higher-level and cooperating ACS troops.

2. Evolution, due to the scale and complexity of automation work. According to this principle, the system was created by a phased increase in both the number of automated functions and the number of KPs equipped with automation. This principle defines the Navy system as an open type system, incl. on the composition of automated KP, a set of automated functions and information support. Guided by this principle, the priority objects and processes of automation are chosen, the strategy of building and developing the system's capabilities is rationalized while maximizing the effect of automation with given resource limitations and an acceptable degree of scientific and technical risk.

3. Unification, which provides not only the possibility of implementing the next stage of automation within acceptable costs at the right time and with high quality, but also allowing simple and reliable solutions to the compatibility of the Navy system with superior and interoperable systems, and significantly reducing the cost of using automation equipment , incl. for the acquisition and maintenance of spare parts, as well as for the training of maintenance personnel. Due to this principle, the system, hardware and software solutions of the system were unified with solutions adopted in the ACS of the USSR Armed Forces, as well as unification of solutions between incoming subsystems.

4. Modularity, consisting in the fact that the Navy system "assembles" from unified modules of various levels (hardware-software, hardware and software). This concept gives rise to the concept of a typical complex of automation tools (KSA). CSA is a hardware-software module installed at the command post (CP) and customizable to suit its characteristics (the Northern Fleet's CP has its own characteristics in comparison with the CP of the Pacific Fleet, the Central Naval Navy has its own characteristics that distinguish it from the CF of the Northern Fleet and the Pacific Fleet , etc.).

5. Structural similarity, according to which the structural construction of the Navy system is determined by the organizational and staff structure of the Navy's control system. This principle determines the topology of the system and the possibility of its reorganization with changes in the structure of the Navy.

6. Virtuality, which allowed in a single physical system to programmatically implement a family of virtual ACS for the kinds of forces and levels of management. 7. Delineation of access and security of information, which is important in systems of this type. Compliance with this principle assumes a strict distribution of powers and relevant information between users and guarantees the protection of information from unauthorized use and change.

8. Functional structuring, following which the boundaries of the system are defined and its functional subsystems are identified. Functional structuring due to the rational distribution of control functions between functional subsystems on the basis of homogeneity of functions (in the sense of the demands and constraints imposed on them) has allowed to obtain good consumer properties of the system at moderate costs.

As part of KAS, three functional tracts were distinguished: combat control , which implements functions with stringent requirements for reactivity and reliability; providing management that implements functions with less stringent requirements for reactivity and reliability, but with a large information load; planning application that implements functions outside the control cycle. In addition, the appearance on the CP of technical means of automation has generated a number of new functions to manage these funds. These functions are organized in the system management path. Finally, a group of functions that ensure stealth and stability of control in the conditions of destabilizing factors is highlighted in the information protection pathway.

Typical architecture of a number of automation systems (KSA) based on modularity of construction, unification of technical solutions, providing the ability to adapt and develop, focused on achieving high levels of reactivity, reliability and information security. The appearance of CSA is due to the distribution of automated functions along paths, levels and control points. The elements of the CSA belonging to the same path are organized into a functional complex.

The concept of an integrated subsystem for data exchange with ships and submarines, which takes into account the communication features in the ocean zone, including submerged objects, is proposed and implemented. Within the framework of this concept, a protocol gateway (a coastal communication facility) is defined that not only matches the RF Armed Forces Data Exchange System (SOD) with the Navy's existing communication system over the radio links of the Navy, but also significantly improves the reliability of the shore-sea-shore communication lines.

A subsystem of remote command indicators was created that allows the top command staff of the Navy and fleets in real time to monitor the work of the operators of the workstations of their CP with the possibility of sighting the prepared documents or canceling them. A database on its own forces and the state of the environment was developed and implemented on the basis of an adapted database management system (DBA "Adabas").

A subsystem of automated data collection on the quality of the system's functioning (in terms of reliability and probabilistic-temporal characteristics - WWH) was developed and implemented. Within the framework of the system, remote control of the functioning of the automated objects of the system (with detailing to a technical facility) and checking the throughput of fragments of the ACS of the aircraft is realized.

The processes and tasks of providing integrated naval aviation control from coastal control points have been developed and implemented. A complex of data exchange with airplanes in the air based on unification with a similar basic data exchange system for the Air Force was developed and implemented.

It should be noted that most of these solutions were implemented at the world level. For example, in 1976, for the first time in the USSR, the exchange of electronic documents of a large volume ("e-mail") was demonstrated in the process of testing the interaction of the Mars research institute (Ulyanovsk) and the Research Institute AA (Moscow), at about the same time, as in the US, but on the domestic hardware and software base.

State testing of the system (as part of the VS system) was carried out at the customer's facilities in conditions close to real ones, incl. in the process of command and staff exercises and military games. On tests and exercises the system showed a stable and reliable work for its intended purpose. The tests were successfully completed in 1979, in 1980 the system was adopted by the Navy.

By 1985, the system equipped with dozens of control posts and coastal communication facilities of the Navy at various levels, as well as hundreds of ships and submarines. By that time, the system had experienced a number of upgrades, taking into account the experience of its operation and improving the planning and use of new types of weapons. Until 2002, the system provided for the centralized control of the forces of the Navy in the conditions of constant combat readiness, from the peaceful to the martial law and from the conduct of military operations on the oceanic (with the CP of the highest levels of command of the Armed Forces) and decentralized (with the command of the Commander in Chief of the Navy and the CP of fleet commanders) and continental theaters of military operations.

The system significantly improved the effectiveness of naval and submarine naval forces (and since 1984 - and Navy aviation) by reducing the time for collecting and analyzing information, increasing the speed and stealth of bringing combat command signals to performers, and increasing the sustainability of control. Thanks to it, the labor costs of operators of command posts for monitoring the completion and execution of combat control signals, as well as analysis of the state, location and performance of tasks by subordinate forces are reduced. The creation of the command system of the Navy solved the task of state importance to automate control of the forces of the Navy and laid the foundations of a unified automated control system of the Navy.

The command of the Navy made a decision to create a central (24 Central Research Institute of Defense) and regional (in the Navy GSH, fleet headquarters) funds of algorithms and programs. A target program for the creation of special mathematical and software for the automated systems of the Navy until 2020 was developed.

A noteworthy feature of this period was the development by the specialists of the Institute (vice-admiral BC Babiy, captains of rank 1: TS Chervatyuk, BP Bichaev, Yu.P. Gushchin) of the concept of creating a mathematical model for simulating two-way combat operationsin the interests of assessing the effectiveness of decisions taken by the command to conduct operations (combat operations), as well as to conduct operational-tactical training of military commanders. Subsequently, this mathematical model was developed in several modifications (responsible executors: AB Chevalyuk, AV Ulanov, IS Kudinova), successfully passed tests at the Naval Academy, operational management of the Naval Academy, the Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces and Now it is successfully applied at the operational training events, it is constantly being improved on the suggestions of the users.

Since 1990, integrated automation of the Navy management processes has been started on the basis of existing automation systems, newly developed automated control systems by mass introduction of personal computers and local computer networks, modern automated telecommunications and communication systems. Today this work is carried out within the framework of the creation of a unified integrated automated control system (IASS) of the Navy. Information management technologies and a single information resource (single information space) created in the IASU of the Navy are the main components of the design of the Navy's functional systems and subsystems.

The 24 Central Research Institute of the Ministry of Defense developed a methodology for justifying the composition and content of information technology and the required information resource for the implementation in the IASU of the Navy functional systems and subsystems. It is based on the system analysis of the functional, system and technical architectures of the projected functional system (subsystem) and the automated control system as a whole. Simultaneously, work is underway to create a unique software package, adapted in the language of a high-level operator for the implementation of functional technologies. Together with industry, modern basic information technologies are introduced in automated systems, first of all: e-mail, Web-technology (including the creation, maintenance and maintenance of databases and information repositories).

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Page last modified: 04-07-2020 14:06:10 ZULU