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Hydrographic Service of the Navy

Hydrographic Service of the Russian Federation Ministry of Defence is designed to meet the challenges of navigation-hydrographic, hydrometeorological and survey support the Navy and other branches of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation in the ocean of strategic areas and maritime zones. It is also the responsibility of the Hydrographic Service of the Navy are tasks of navigation and hydrographic support of maritime activities of the Russian Federation in accordance with international obligations under the sea in the internal sea waters of the protection of human life, the territorial sea, the contiguous and economic areas (with the exception of the Northern Sea Route runs) are under the jurisdiction of Russian Federation.

The main tasks of the service are:

  • Manual maintenance of forces and means of navigation, hydrographic, hydrometeorological and survey support (hereinafter - NGOs, GMOs and MSW) in the prescribed operational readiness to carry out tasks of NGOs, GMOs and MSW Battle and daily activity of forces (troops) Fleets, Caspian Flotilla, other species Armed Forces operating in designated areas (areas of responsibility);
  • organization of oceanographic, hydrographic and marine geophysical surveys in the oceans and seas in the interests of national defense and NGOs maritime activities of the Russian Federation;
  • leadership in the establishment of marine navigation, geophysical and other special cards (including electronic), guidelines and manuals for navigation in the oceans and providing them in the prescribed manner of consumers of Russia and foreign countries;
  • management software (supply) of forces (troops) Navy marine navigation aids and Oceanography (hereinafter - SIT), technical maintenance of the SIT in the constant readiness ships;
  • maintenance and development of systems of navigation equipment on the coast and in the marine waters under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation (with the exception of the Northern Sea Route) in the interests of national defense and NGOs maritime activities of the Russian Federation, provision of aids to navigation actions defined characteristics and modes of operation;
  • management directly subordinate military units and organizations; methodological guidance on specific issues subordinate bodies of military administration, connections, military units and organizations of the Navy HS;
  • Russia's participation in the activities of the International Hydrographic Organization (hereinafter - IHO) and the International Association of Lighthouse Authorities (hereinafter - IALA), and cooperation with other international and regional marine organizations.

The Hydrographic Service of the Navy is responsible also perform other tasks stipulated by the regulatory acts of the Russian Federation, decrees and orders of the President of the Russian Federation, orders and directives of the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, orders and directives of the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation, the General Staff directives, orders and directives of the General Command of the Navy. The authority of the Hydrographic Service of the Navy is the Navigation and Oceanography of the Russian Federation Ministry of Defence.

Office of Navigation and Oceanography of the Russian Defence Ministry subordinate located in St. Petersburg central cartographic production of the Navy, 373 Centre (collection and processing hydrographic and hydrometeorological information of the Navy), 460 long-range radio navigation center of the Navy and the central warehouse gidrografichesko- navigator property of the Navy, as well as special units against the Hydrographic service of the Navy, stationed in major ports and naval bases of the Russian Federation.

For the production of research in the oceans and seas as part of the Hydrographic Service of the Navy formed oceanographic and hydrographic expedition teams, divisions oceanographic and hydrographic vessels.

The most significant contribution to the study of the oceans is made in the second half of the twentieth century. With the help of specially designed high-precision data acquisition and processing systems implemented plans for a comprehensive study of large areas of the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian and Arctic Oceans, the work carried out off the coast of Antarctica. As a result, a large volume of information on bottom topography, physical fields, hydro-physical characteristics of the water masses of the oceans, which allowed to publish fundamental work "Atlas of the Oceans."

Established in the country collection of nautical charts, with over 6 ths. Numbers, its composition and quality provides a solution to problems of the sea, facing both military and to civilian navigators, although the overall study of the world's oceans, especially the remote areas, and consequently and map support, according to the International hydrographic organization, is no more than 22%.

The widespread introduction of computer technology and automation in modern navigation systems has led to the need for a new kind of navigation map products - electronic navigation charts.

Navigation and Oceanography Department of the Russian Ministry of Defence participates in international projects and supports ongoing business relationships with hydrographic offices 68 countries. Sharing with them new maps, guides to navigation, navigation operative information ensures the development of modern Russian editions, covering the water of foreign countries in which Russian vessels in accordance with international law of the sea as a rule, do not conduct their research.

In order to ensure safety of navigation in the waters of Russia a reliable system of navigation equipment was created. On the coast of the country have been deployed more than 4 thousand. Facilities, including 399 luminous beacons, 2538 There are lighted and unlighted navigation marks, 148 beacons and radar beacons, transponders, 45 stations of radio navigation systems. For maintenance of aids to navigation, and control over their work each year is used more than 150 hydrographic ships and boats of special construction.

In the twenty-first century. Lighthouse Authorities came with new technologies that enhance the safety of navigation: actively developing a network of control and correction stations, global navigation satellite systems "GLONASS / NAVSTAR" on the basis of marine beacons. Creating such a network on the approaches to the main ports of Russia will significantly increase the accuracy of determining the position of ships (up to 5 meters) within a radius of 250 km from the place of installation stations; light microscopic machines designed low energy consumption, significantly increasing reliability and the range of luminous signs and beacons; completed the establishment of a system for monitoring the navigation equipment based on the use of geo-information technologies and modern means of communication.

In the time of Peter I all orders for the production of hydrographic works came personally from the emperor or from the general-admiral, and their performers were Marine officers, who from 1724 began to receive instructions from the Admiralty Board. Since 1746 all matters were entrusted hydrography board under Fleet Captain A.I.Nagaev. It prepared, which was very detailed for its time, an atlas of the Baltic Sea (1757 edition, in 1788, 1789 and 1795), more than 50 years and served as Russian mariners.

In 1777, on the state of the Admiralty Board the beginning of the drawing "to draw plans for decent and their content". Then work on hydrography assigned sequentially to set up in 1799 "The Committee for the dissemination of marine science and improvement of the art of marine art " and opened in 1805 "The State Department of the Admiralty." In 1827, an "Office-hydrographer general" was formed as part of the Ministry of Maritime., which fell into "the office of the General hydrograph" and " hydrographic depot", which, under the control of the director, was in charge of parts of the executive and scientist. In the same year the the Corps naval navigators was established, chief of which is also considered a general hydrograph. The first and only general was hydrographer Admiral Gavriil Andreevich Sarychev (1827-31), on whose death the management of all the former under his conducting parts transferred to the Chief of Naval Staff Prince A.S. Menshikov, and the first and only director of the hydrographic depot was F.F.Schubert (1827-37).

In 1837 the rank of hydrographer was abolished and all the management of the hydrographic part was focused in the newly instituted " Hydrographic Department ". On the responsibilities of the Hydrographic Office lay periodical publication notes, devoted both hydrography and other sectors of the marine and naval affairs. In 1885 the Hydrographic Department was transformed into the "Main Hydrographic Office."

The jurisdiction of the Hydrographic Department consisted pilot team workshops nautical instruments in St. Petersburg and Nikolaev , marine observatory in Kronstadt and Nikolaev, meteorologich. station on the banks adjacent to the Russian seas, marine telegraph semaphore in Kronstadt, signal station in Nikolaev, Bogdanovka, Parutino , Adzhigiole and Ochakov. The period until 1917 was characterized by full-scale construction and improvement of the lighthouse equipment, compass case, the publication of nautical charts and publications.

In the first years of Soviet power the Central Hydrographic Department (BGB) has been renamed to the Central Hydrographic Office of the Soviet Republic. In 1918-1922 the safety of navigation Management (Ubek) was created that combined the existing hydrographic small part in the unified local government, directly responsible to the GSU. In 1924 it was renamed the Central Hydrographic Department of the USSR. During the war of 1941-1945 the Main Staff of the Navy in Moscow was the Task Force Hydrographic Department of the Navy.

After the war, work began on the creation of oceanic nuclear missile fleet. In these circumstances, in 1972 the Hydrographic Office of the Navy was been transformed into the General Directorate of Navigation and Oceanography of the Ministry of Defense (MoD GUNiO). After 1960, when the beginning of a long underwater diving nuclear submarines with missiles in all areas of the oceans, including the Arctic basin ice-piece, took a radical change in the navigation-hydrographic and hydrometeorological support. During this period, there came to the fore the need for a detailed study and mapping of the Earth's geophysical fields - gravity and magnetic.

In 1970-1980s, there was intensified international activity GUNiO USSR Ministry of Defense. Since that time GUNiO officially represents national interests in the International Hydrographic Organization and the International Association of Lighthouse Authorities, as well as the interests of the Ministry of Defence in the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO .

In the Russian Federation in 1992 the General Directorate of Navigation and Oceanography of Defense of the USSR was renamed the Main Navigation and Oceanography of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation (GUNiO Russian Ministry of Defense). In 2006 it renamed the Navigation and Oceanography of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation (Unio Russian Ministry of Defense).




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Page last modified: 18-04-2016 20:05:23 ZULU