Project 22220 / LK-60 / Arktika - Program
Baltiysky Zavod Shipyard is building three LK-60 60MW icebreakers of Project 22220 (Arktika, Sibir, Ural) scheduled for delivery in 2017 – 2020. The serial icebreakers will be built to RS class and will be commissioned into service by the State Corporation Rosatom. The icebreaker engineering design was developed by CDB ICEBERG in 2009. The vessels dual-draft concept and capability will allow operating them both in the Arctic and in the mouths of the polar rivers. Icebreakers will be operated in the western region of the Arctic: in the Barents, Pechora and Kara Seas, as well as in shallower areas of the Yenisei estuary and the Ob Bay area.
It was reported in July 2012 that Russia planned construction of the world's largest nuclear-powered icebreaker by the end of 2017. According to the tender announcement, construction of the vessel should begin in 2013, with the ship being launched in November 2015. Following outfitting of the ship, sea trials were scheduled for August 2017, with ice trials starting in November 2017. The vessel was to be delivered to the port of Murmansk by 30 December 2017. The initial maximum price set by RosAtomFlot for the contract was RUB 37 billion ($1.1 billion). The deadline for applications was 30 July, while a summing up of the contest will be held on 3 August.
"The estimated cost will include construction work, building a shipyard, etc. But the most expensive part of the icebreaker is the RITM-200 reactor and various pieces of know-how," Aleksey Kravchenko of OSK Shipbuilding Corporation told the Izvetya newspaper. He noted that the cost of subsequent LK-60 vessels would be some 30% lower.
The company's current fleet of four nuclear-powered icebreakers was slated to continue operation until 2020, working the freezing ports in Russia's Arctic coast and maintaining the Northern Sea Route. Rosatomflot also operates two nuclear-powered freighters, two floating technical bases, a radioactive waste ship and a radiation monitoring ship.
It was expected that by 2020 two old icebreakers "Siberia"and "50 years of Victory" and 3 new Universal two-level icebreaker LK-60Ya of 60 Mwt would be in opereation. In addition 4 diesel icebreakers of 25 Mwt and 3 ones of 18 Mwt have to be constructed too. The Pevek icebreaker with restricted draft would extend the applicability of the Taimyr type to operate in Arctic river estuaries.
As of 2006 it was planned that by 2014 the first of four new fourth-generation 60-MWe single-reactor Project LK-60 icebreakers were to be brought on line to replace some of the older ships. They would be designed by the nuclear industry, the Marine Fleet's Central Research Institute, and the Krylov Institute. These icebreakers would be able both to conduct convoy operations on the high seas and to work in shallow waters and in rivers.
As of 2007 plans to commence the construction of a new generation of nuclear-powered icebreakers, the Project LK-60Ya developed by the Central Design Bureau in St. Petersburg, within the next five years, had been announced. Russia had a projected need to construct three nuclear-power transport icebreakers with variable water draft and seven diesel transport icebreakers before 2020.
In 2009 Russia was planning to design nuclear icebreaker of new generation, Director General of Rosatom State Nuclear Energy Corporation Sergey Kiriyenko said during a meeting with captains and chief mechanics of nuclear icebreakers. He said that the task of the new manager of Atomflot Vyacheslav Ruksha was to make necessary preparations for this project. Kiriyenko appointed Ruksha as director general of Atomflot on Friday. "Our key task for the moment was to reach agreements with major cargo carriers so as to determine the model of Atomflot's financial support," Kiriyenko said.
Kiriyenko said that this year the government will allocate additional money for the development of nuclear icebreaker fleet. "We did almost impossible thing: we changed the budget in the middle of the year. The budget earmarked 800mln RUR in 2008 with 400mln RUR to be allocated in July. Rosatom will have to substantiate the finding. Part of this money will be spent on raise in wages," Kiriyenko said. According to the program of the Transport Ministry, by 2015 the cargo turnover of the nuclear icebreaker fleet of Russia may grow eightfold to 16mln tons.
The government would make changes to the existing legislation so as to stop the practice of free of charge use of nuclear icebreakers along the Northern Sea Route. The tariff for this service would consist of two components: direct payment for transportation of cargoes and fee for infrastructure service of the state - opportunity to use the Northern Sea Route.
Russian specialists had designed a new type of reactor for icebreakers, RITM-200, which could replace the existing KLT reactors. A mock-up of nuclear icebreaker of new generation has been tested in the ice model basin of Krylov Shipbuilding Research Institute in St.Petersburg with the test being very much like real high-latitude navigation amid heavy ice. The director of the institute, member of the Russian Academy of Sciences Valentin Pashin said in October 2008 that a group of specialists from Iceberg Design Bureau and colleagues from Finland were working on the technical project of the ship. The project was to ready in 2009. The vessel will most probably be built by Baltiyskiy Zavod, a facility that has built most of Russia's nuclear icebreakers. The series may consist of 3-4 icebreakers with a capacity of 60MW each (90,000 h p). The designers had suggested a number of new unprecedented technical solutions.
The estimated cost of the project was 15bln RUR. The preliminary design of the "universal vessel with nuclear reactor" was ready. 190mln RUR was budgeted for this purpose in 2006, 264mln RUR - in 2007. In 2008-2009 the Government was planning to allocate 918mln RUR for the development of the technical project.
Construction of the largest and most powerful nuclear-powered icebreaker began on 05 November 2013 in St. Petersburg’s Baltic Shipyard. By December 2017, the icebreaker must complete its sea and ice trials and arrive at the Murmansk base of Atomflot, which operates the country’s commercial icebreaker fleet. “There are no doubts that this work will be completed in due time and with due quality,” Ivan Kamenskikh, the president of the United Shipbuilding Corporation, said during the ceremony.
Russia's second nuclear-powered icebreaker of Project 22220 was laid down on 26 May 2015 at the Baltic Shipyard in Saint Petersburg. In 2013, the Baltic Shipyard signed a contract worth 84.4 billion rubles ($1.6 billion under the current exchange rate) with Russia’s state-run atomic energy agency Rosatom to build two Project 22220 icebreakers by 2020. The ships will be commissioned in December 2019 and December 2020 respectively.
"The Arctic is full of opportunities… But you cannot just walk into it empty-handed, you need to be armed with modern technology – vessels, ships, communications and much more…" Russia’s Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin said at the keel-laying ceremony.
In a separate deal, the Russian atomic agency paid 37 billion rubles (roughly $1.1 billion in 2012) for Project 22220’s maiden ship, named the Arktika. It was laid down in November 2013 and was due to be launched in December 2017. The vessel was billed as the world's largest and most powerful vessel of its kind. The ship's length was 189.5 yards, its width was 37.1 yards and displacement was 33,540 tons. The two new icebreakers will be fitted each with a specifically designed nuclear reactor RITM-200.
Rosatom’s chief Sergei Kirienko, who was at the keel-laying ceremony, lauded the future additions to the country’s nuclear-powered fleet, saying they would bolster Russia’s bid to expand Arctic shelf exploration and strengthen its military capabilities. The Arctic shelf is believed to hold huge amounts of oil and natural gas. Russia has been laying claims to deposits within its offshore border areas, as have four other Arctic nations – the United States, Canada, Norway and Denmark.
Nuclear icebreaker Arktika was floated out on 16 June 2016 in Russia’s St. Petersburg. The vessel was expected to become the world’s largest in its class when finished. Arktika is the lead ship of the Project 22220 series scheduled to replace nuclear ships of the previous generation. They are going to be not just bigger, but more powerful. Thanks to variable draft, these ships will be capable of sailing open seas and operate in shallow waters of Arctic rivers’ debouchments. The Baltic Shipyard will be building all three icebreakers of the series, including Siberia (laid down May 26, 2015) and Urals (to be laid down in the autumn of 2016).
On 22 September 2017, Russia floated out the hull of its first serial universal nuclear-powered icebreaker Sibir, Project 22220 (LK-60Ya class).
In November 2017 Shipbuilders baltic shipyard completed the formation of the superstructure of the head of the nuclear icebreaker "Arktika" project 22220. After loading the main turbine generator (tg) starboard custom was installed last block of the superstructure above the engine room. Thus ended one of the key stages of completion the guala "Arctic" afloat - said the press service. The next key stage of construction will be the completion of the formation of the protective shell of the central compartment of the icebreaker, where the nuclear reactor is situated, and also test it for leaks. Construction of a head nuclear-powered icebreaker "Arktika" project 22220 is according to the approved schedule, the agreed deadline icebreaker – may 2019 - added at the enterprise. Currently, ooo "Baltic shipyard-shipbuilding" was building the series of three nuclear-powered icebreakers Project 22220 ("Arktika", "Sibir" and "Ural") with terms of delivery 2017-2020.
Baltic shipyard in St. Petersburg on 22 September 2017 launched the second of the new generation powerful icebreakers aimed for the Northern Sea Route. «Sibir» is the second of Russia’s new Project 22220 nuclear powered icebreakers for year-around navigation in Arctic waters. The lead icebreaker of Project 22220, the Arktika, was laid down at Baltiysky Zavod shipyard on 5 November 2013 and launched on 16 June 2016. The first serial icebreaker of Project, the Sibir, was laid down on 26 May 2015 and launched on 22 September 2017. «Sibir» was expected to make her first port-call to Murmansk in November 2020.
Nuclear-powered icebreaker Ural of Project 22220 launched at Baltiysky Zavod shipyard in Saint-Petersburg. Elvira Nabiullina, head of the Central Bank of Russia, participated in the ceremony as the ship godmother. Baltiysky Zavod laid down nuclear-powered icebreaker Ural on 25 July 2016. It is the second serial multipurpose icebreaker of Project 22220. The third icebreaker of the class, «Ural» will start sailing in 2021.
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