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IS (Iosif Stalin) heavy tank

IS (Iosif Stalin) heavy tank

KV 85 Objekt 238 85mm148 combined the turret of the IS-1 with the KV-1 hull, It was limited to just 148 production vehicles.
IS-1 Objekt 237 85mm107 developed in 1943 by the SKB-2 (the Special Design Bureau No. 2) and armed with the 85mm D5T tank gun, The production was limited to a very few vehicles.
IS-1E Objekt 244 85mm 1experimental tank based on the IS-1, fitted with a electric transmission and large diameter road wheels. It remained in prototype stage only.
IS-2 Objekt 240 122mm395 replaced the 85mm D5T gun with the 122mm A19 gun and was later rearmed with the 122 mm D25T gun. Production began in December 1943. The Soviet armor specialists called it the IS-2 Mod. 1943.
IS-2MObjekt 268 122mm 3000 The improved version of the IS-2 Mod 1943 had a modified front hull. About 3,000 vehicles were produced from the spring of 1944 up to the end of the war. It was known as the IS-2 Mod. 1944 in the Soviet Union.
IS-3 Objekt 703122mm2311This tank had a completely new designed low profile turret and hull. The prototype was completed in October 1944. A few IS-3's saw action in the last stages of the War.
IS-4 Objekt 701122mm 200This was a heavy armored version of the IS-2m/3. The chassis was lengthened to accommodate one more road wheel. It had a new 750hp engine, new transmission and thick armor. About 200 vehicles were produced in 1947.
IS-5Object 248 100mm 1 Tank IS-5 in nature did not exist. This index was called the draft design of a heavy tank, created in 1944 in the design bureau of plant No. 100 in Chelyabinsk under the leadership of J. Ya. Kotina. It didnt even reach the technical project. The project "Object 248", bearing the name of the IS-5, did not reach mass production. Work on the new IS-5, with the factory designation Object 730, started in the last months of 1948. The aim of this project was a deep modernization of the heavy tank IS-4.
IS-6 Objekt 252 122mm new road wheels, new tracks and electric transmission. It did not enter production.
IS-7 Objekt 260 130mm heaviest (68t) tank in the Soviet Heavy Tank series. The main armament was a 130mm gun and the engine was a 1050hp marine engine. The road wheels and tracks were applied from the IS-6. It stayed in experimental production only.
Objekt 730 122mm8000 turret and hull design were similar to the IS-3. It had a 700hp super-charged diesel engine. It was produced from 1950. According to Western data, it was released about 8,000 T-10 tanks of all modifications. The JS-8 was redesignated the T-10 after I.V. Stalin died.
T-10M Objekt 272 122mm improved version of the T-10. It had a new 122mm M62-T2 gun and a 750hp, turbo-charged diesel engine with fuel injection. The production began in 1957.
Objekt 277 130mm 1last heavy tank of the Soviet Union. It had a 130mm gun and 290mm frontal armor, with 8 road wheels on each side of the hull. It was not adopted by the Soviet army. The prototype was made in 1957.

The IS (Iosif Stalin) heavy tank in Russian sources is usually referred to as "Tank of the Victory", a title shared with the T-34 medium tank. Development of the IS (Iosef Stalin) series of tanks, started in late 1942, began in earnest in 1943 as a response to the performance of the German Panther and Tiger tanks at the batttle of Kursk. The IS tanks were updated versions of the earlier KV with better mechanical reliability and more powerful weapons.

Heavy tanks were intended to strengthen tank and rifle formations when breaking through heavily fortified enemy positions. The Soviet T-35 heavy tank was a symbol of the might of the Red Army in the 1930s. These multi-turreted combat vehicles proudly paraded at the head of a convoy of military equipment during parades on Red Square in Moscow. The T-35 was the only five-turret tank in the world to be mass-produced, albeit in limited numbers.

At the end of the 1930s, the Soviet Union was well aware of the need to develop a new heavy tank that could be used in breakthroughs and overcoming enemy defensive formations. The Kliment Voroshilov became such a machine. One of the important tasks facing the Soviet designers was the design of a vehicle that would combine a low silhouette with good armor.

The Soviet heavy tank KV-1 is a milestone vehicle for world tank building. It was the first heavy tank in the world to have a modern layout. The appearance of the KV tank set the level to which the designers of all heavy tanks, not only Soviet ones, but also foreign ones, were guided in the future. However, the fate of the KV tank was rather contradictory. Paradoxically, in 1941 it had no worthy opponents, and when a similar tank, the Tiger, appeared in the Germans at the end of 1942, the combat characteristics of the Soviet KV were much lower than that of the Tiger. At the beginning of World War II, the KV-1 heavy tank was the most powerful and most advanced vehicle in the world. Strong weaponry and thick armor helped it to emerge victorious in clashes with German tanks, for whom the meeting with the KV-1 was an unpleasant surprise.

At the same time, Soviet crews discovered flaws in the design of the tank. During the retreat in the first months of the war, even minor malfunctions led to the fact that the crews were forced to completely disable their vehicles so that they would not get to the Wehrmacht troops - there was no time and resources to repair the tanks. In 1942, the KV was modernized to increase its reliability and maneuverability in combat conditions, but for this the designers had to weaken the armor.

It is difficult to overestimate the contribution that heavy tanks made to the victory, which took the enemy's blow in the most difficult first year of the war for our country. The design of the "Kveshka" served as the basis for the design and creation of IS tanks, which, having taken over from the KV-1, entered Berlin with triumph.

The IS-2 became one of the strongest tanks in the world during the Second World War. Its 122-mm D-25T cannon was the most powerful tank gun of that time, and its heavy armor (its frontal thickness reached 120 mm) withstood shells from the German Tigers, to combat which the IS-2 was created. The best Soviet heavy tank of the Second World War, took part in all important operations of the final stage of the war, received the nickname "Russian tiger" from the Germans.

After the end of the Great Patriotic War, the armored and mechanized troops of the Red Army (from 1953 - the Soviet Army) were armed with heavy tanks IS-1, IS-2 and IS-3 "5, as well as a small number of previously produced tanks KB-1C and KV-85'78. Serial production of tanks IS-3 continued in 1945-1946 at ChKZ (the only heavy tank plant in the country at that time) and was discontinued due to the launch of the production of the IC-4 tank. A total of 1,430 IS-3 tanks were collected in the post-war period.

During serial production, various improvements were made to the design of the IS-3 tank, and a number of R & D projects were carried out aimed at enhancing its combat and technical characteristics. For example, in 1945-1946. to increase the rate of fire of the tank, work was carried out on the use of unitary 122-mm rounds in ammunition with the placement of their laying in the fighting compartment. In addition, along with an assessment of the use of more powerful artillery weapons than the D-25T in the IS-3, the issues of automating the loading of a gun, electric turret rotation with a commander control system (target designation) and improved combat compartment ventilation, as well as visibility from a tank were considered. The project of installation in the turret of the twin large-caliber machine gun (12.7-mm DShK) of belt feed instead of the 7.62-mm DTM machine gun was developed.

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Page last modified: 13-09-2021 17:23:40 ZULU