Russian Shipbuilding Industry
Shipbuilding in Russia is very different from other sectors of industry: very long terms of project completion (sometimes more than 30 months); very high project costs ($30-50 mln.); and a need for high capital investments.
The main task of the program of naval armaments is to determine the types of ships, their number and weapons systems of locations. This was for the Soviet Union or Russia especially true, since there are four fleets [Pacific, Black Sea, Baltic, and Northern] virtually isolated from each other, in four maritime theaters with different climatic conditions. Ships in the Russian fleet were designed for one of these specific theaters of operations.
Naval shipbuilding is the most expensive form of the production of weapons because of the amount of work done and the number of involved companies as well as weapons systems, equipment and components for each project ship. As one of the most important factors is the existence of the fleet its political factor, the navy and politics are inseparable. Therefore, the development program of the fleet depends entirely on the policies pursued by the state for a certain period of time. And well, if this policy is a constant that does not change dramatically, the direction does not affect the program of naval construction in their development over 5-15 years. After all, the ships are not built in 1 or 2 years, and but rather require 10-15 years from the start of design to the completion of construction. Construction of a series of similar ships stretches, as a rule, for at least a decade, since the shipyards do not have limitless opportunities, and funding opportunities are also critical. Over the following decade there were new programs and new weapons systems.
The main factor in the formation of the naval shipbuilding program is the economic power of the country and the development of its scientific and technical structure. A country must make all the necessary modern equipment for the types of equipment intended for the construction of ships. There must be well trained and prepared personnel, both for development and production, and for the maintenance of all systems of modern weapons.
Initially, the military-political leadership of the country should be based on its own strategy, clearly identify prospective opponents and their own capabilities in opposition to them, and on this basis the state would build the policy. And under this policy are developed a weapons program with the prospect for a certain period of time.
Of the large number of projects studied, the approved program for a period of time at best, two or three projects are realized in practice. And those are constrained because of the timing of construction not quite matching the expected tasks and requiring substantial upgrading.
The second major task of naval construction is the development of infrastructure, that is, the creation of conditions for the deployment of the fleet, as it affects the preservation of already existing ships, their operation and upgrades as new weapons systems. Extending the life of the ship is the most important economic component. The issue of utilization is also very important. In the development of naval programs it must be considered separately, even at the expense of quantity. It is better to have one combat-ready unit than three in long-term repair, or, even worse, "laid-up" due to lack of money.
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