Military Doctrine - 2003
In early October 2003 the military top brass, President Vladimir Putin, administration officials, ministers, security chiefs, Duma deputies and journalists gathered in the Defense Ministry to hear Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov present a document that was presented to the press as "The Public Part of the Military Doctrine." Ivanov's 45-minute presentation was accompanied by graphs, maps and keynote phrases appearing on big color screens -- not a typical Soviet-style doklad; in fact, it was more like a Western CEO addressing investors. A colorful brochure with the text of the doctrine (printed Western-style on glossy paper) was handed out, complete with maps and graphs.
Changing through the past few years the situation in the world has set new chellenges before the national security and brand new missions for the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. These missions can be divided into four general categories:
1. Encountering threats to the security or interests of the Russian Federation.
2. National economy and policy interests.
3. Peacetime military operations.
4. Military force employment.
Priority of missions is normally formulated in keeping with the current situation and should provide for an adequate response of the Armed Forces to threats the most dangeruos of which have a complicated nature.
Containment of threats is meant to be ensured when:
- A menacing evolution of international relations or an armed invasion into the territory of the Russian Federation and (or) its allies are timely identified;
- Strategic nuclear force, assets and management are well-equipped, mobilized, maintained and kept ready to impair the enemy as necessary under any circumstances;
- Forces and branches manpower is well-trained, equipped and ready for either mobilization or reaction at peacetime to be able respond to enemy's local attack;
- The national mobilization readiness is provided at high level to enable the economy to shift to wartime plans on short notice;
- Local defence is properly organized.
Economy and policy interests of the Russian Federation include:
- Safety of Russian citizens living or visiting the zones of armed conflicts or those of political or other instability;
- Security of business of organizations incorporated under the law of the Russian Federation or representative bodies thereof;
- National interests in inner waters, continental shelf, exclusive economic zones of the Russian Federation and World Ocean;
- The Armed Forces multiscale operability in the areas of the Russian Federation's vital interests determined by the President;
- Information attack countermeasures.
Peacetime military operations include:
- Operations held jointly with allied powers as envisaged by international treaties or other interstate agreements with the Russian Federation acting as a party thereto;
- Combatting international terrorism, political extremism or separatism, preventing and fighting subversive destruction and terrorist attacks;
- Partial or full strategic deployment, the nuclear deterrence force maintenance and employment;
- The UN or the CIS-approved peacekeeping or peace re-enforcement operations within coalitions under the auspices of international organisations with Russia as a member thereto or on a temporary basis;
- Operations ensuring martial law or state of emergency to one or several constituent entities of the Russian Federation following decisions by the top state authorities;
- The Russian Federation state frontier air and underwater protection;
- Operations ensuring sanctions imposed by the UN Security Council;
- Natural calamity prevention and disaster response.
The military force shall be used to defend the safety of the Russian Federation. The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation are maintained to fight the enemy in case of armed confrontations which can be classified into four types.
ARMED CONFLICT is a type of political, ethnic, religious, territorial and other dispute resolution. It is a kind of an armed confrontation when neither of sides launches war activities while both sides normally seek their internal goals. An armed conflict may follow escalation of an armed incident, a border conflict, war actions or other local armed confrontation where armed military personnel takes part. An armed conflict may be of an international (two or more states involved) or an internal (interstate confrontation) nature.
LOCAL WAR is a war of limited political goals between two or more states. The warfare is normally conducted within the borders of opposing sides. The sides are primarily focused on their internal goals (territory, economy, politics or others). A local war is normally waged by task forces deployed in the zone of confrontation with possible increment through force projection, re-direction and partial strategic deployment.
REGIONAL WAR is a war of two or more states (group of states) all located within a region when national armed forces or coalitions are employed. The warfare, thereat, is confined by one region, adjacent waters and airspace. All sides seek vital military and political goals. A regional war requires full deployment of armed forces and economy trasformation, strengthning potentials of all sides. In cases when sides of confrontation (or their allies) possess nuclear weapons the regional war can potentially evolve into a nuclear warfare.
LARGE-SCALE WAR is awar of coalitions or the most powerful nations of the world. It may be started as a result of a smaller scale war escalation when more nations from different parts of the world join the confrontation. In a large-scale war the opposing sides seek uncompromising military and political goals. It requires the full mobilization of war reserves and high morale of troops. The Russian Defence is planned with due regard to available reserves and capabilities of the national Armed Forces. To that end, the Armed Forces are required to be interoperable with other troops, must be able to counter a threat and defeat the enemy, be capable and active at both defence and offence under any circumstances of warfare or weapons used, including modern and future weapons and weapons of mass destruction.
The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation must also be capable to:
- In peacetime and emergency: maintain strategic deterrence potential and keep the hiqh level of combat readiness, employ the constant readiness forces to perform two combat missions of any scale simultaneously, bring about on its own or participate international peacekeeping operations;
- Facing a warfare threat: ensure strategic deployment, empede escalation using strategic deterrence forces and constant readiness forces.
- Waging a war: counter enemy's airspace attack using forces available, provide the full-scale strategic deployment, defend the nation against two local enemies simultaneously.
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