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BMP-2 Fighting Vehicle

The BMP-2 [BMP = Boyevaya Mashina Pyekhota - Infantry Fighting Vehicle] infantry combat vehicle, fielded in the early 1980's [initially designated BMP 1981], is an improved version of the BMP-1 incorporating major armament changes. The new two-man turret mounts a 30-mm automatic gun with a long thin tube and double-baffle muzzle brake that can be used against aircraft and helicopters. The ATGM launcher on top of the turret can employ either AT-4 SPIGOT or AT-5 SPANDREL missiles, though the AT-5 Spandrel canister is normally mounted. Given the enlarged turret, there are two roof hatches in the rear fighting compartment, rather than the four of the BMP-1, and the the BMP-2 accommodates one less passenger. Each side of the troop compartment has three firing ports with associated roof-mounted periscopes.

The BMP-2 is a light amphibious tracked combat vehicle with high mobility and armouring. Its cross-country capabilities are improved due to employment of a different type of tracks and adjustment of the shock absorber. It is intended for destruction of various armoured targets, including enemy tanks, combat helicopters and manpower. Used by mechanized units, the vehicle enables small arms fire from firing ports when on the move. Its armor provides NBC protection of the crew. It is adjusted for air lift.

The BMP-2 is fully amphibious [water obstacles can be crossed by swimming], and the upper part of the track has a sheet metal cover deeper than that of the BMP-1 which is filled with a buoyancy aid. A French SNPE explosive reactive armor (ERA) kit and others are available for use on the BMP-2. However, during dismounted troop movement, ERA would be a hazard. Thus, passive armor is more likely and ERA application is doubtful. For amphibious use, additional armor application is unlikely. Other options are spall liners, air conditioning, and a more powerful engine. Russian AG-17 30-mm automatic grenade launcher modification is offered for BMP-2. Russian KBP offers a drop-in one-man turret, called Kliver, with a stabilized 2A72 30-mm gun, a 4 Kornet ATGM launcher, thermal sights, a coaxial 7.62-mm MG and improved fire control system. ATGM load consists of one ready on the launcher and four stowed. They are readily accessible, but require hand loading from an open hatch. The AT-5 and AT-5B are more likely than AT-4 and -4B. French-German Flame-V adaptor kit permits the BMP-2 system to launch Milan, Milan-2, and Milan-3 ATGMs.

Thermal sights are available, and the Russian SANOET-1 thermal gunner's sight is available. The Russian Trakt/1PN65 thermal imaging (TI) ATGM night sight is optional. Acquisition range is 2,500 m (NFI). For the launcher in dismount configuration, the Slovenian TS-F ATGM night sight is available and has a detection range of 4,500 m and recognition range of 2,000 m. The Russian Mulat/1PN86 lightweight TI ATGM thermal sight has 3,600 m detection range and 2,000 m identification range.

BMP-2 was created on the basis of BMP-1 to further enhance the combat characteristics of the latter. The development was conducted in the ChTZ KB1972 ("Facility 769") and in KB KMZ in 1974. Adopted in 1980, the machine development of the Kurgan plant, mass production started at the KMZ from April of the same year.

On the machines of the first issues, as in the experimental "object 675", there were no smoke grenade launchers and a second machine gun was mounted on the roof of the hull above the hatch of the senior shooter. The principal difference from the latter is the new armament complex installed at BMP-2. The fact is that with the help of the former complex (a 73-mm gun, coupled with it 7.62 mm machine gun and ATGM "Malyutka"), it was difficult to solve fire missions to defeat typical "infantry" targets - open, lying and especially sheltered manpower, light armored vehicles such as American BTR M113, light defensive structures, as well as to repel attacks of low-flying aircraft and helicopters.

In addition, the experience of combat use of BMP-1 showed that the 2A28 gun does not effectively combat tanks and other armored vehicles due to insufficient accuracy and short range of fire, and because of the low power of the ammunition at the target. Therefore, only ATGMs are used in BMP-1 to defeat such targets.

The main armament of the BMP-2 is a 30-mm automatic cannon 2A42 mounted in a double rotating turret. With the gun, the 7.62-mm PKT machine gun is paired. The 9P135M (9P135M-1) launcher is located on the roof of the tower between the commander's and gunner's hatches. Thus, the weapons installed in the car allow you to fight against various targets, including tanks and helicopter gunships.

The BMP-2 chassis with a six-way undercarriage in terms of design and technical characteristics is similar to the BMP-1 chassis. The combat crew of the machine consists of 10 people: a non-dismountable unit (crew) 3 people (the commander of the car, the same commander of the compartment, the operator-gunner and the driver-mechanic) and 7 infantry commanders. The latter can target fire from personal weapons through special embrasures.

The control compartment is located in the left front of the machine. It houses the workplace of the driver-mechanic, equipped with traffic control devices for the vehicle, instrumentation, surveillance devices, communication equipment (the A-3 apparatus of the tank intercom system - TPU). Behind the driver's seat is the workplace of one arrow. It is equipped with an embrasure for shooting from personal weapons (in the left side of the hull), observation instruments TNP-165A and TNPO-170A, and also with the A-3 TPU apparatus.

The right front of the machine's body is occupied by the engine-transmission compartment (MTO). It is combined along the length of the machine with the control department. These compartments are separated by a heat and sound insulating partition, in which there are hatches for access to the MTO units. The engine, gearbox and planetary gears are combined into a power unit, and the radiators of the cooling system, the engine lubrication system, the transmission oil system, the ejector and the air purifier - into the cooling and air-cleaning unit. The latter is attached to the beams of the roof of the case.

The body of the machine is welded, made of rolled sheets of armored steel. The case details have different thicknesses and design angles for providing the best protection against bullets, small caliber projectiles, shell fragments and mines, as well as strength and rigidity of the structure. According to the configuration of the body, BMP-1 and BMP-2 are close to each other. The biggest differences are in the construction of the roof of the case, which is connected with the installation of a much larger double tower on it. The latter has a conical shape, welded from steel armor plates. On the roof of the tower are hatches of the commander and the operator, holes for the installation of the 1PZ-3 and BKK-1-42 sights, as well as the support of the ATGM launcher. On the hatches, nests of all devices and the joint of the hull and the tower (between the upper and lower shoulder straps of the ball bearing), there are rubber seals, providing sealing of the internal space. On the roof of the hull in the amphibious compartment and on all covers of the hatches on the inside, there is a rebound, which increases the protection of the crew from penetrating radiation.

Protection of the crew and landing from radioactive dust, poisonous substances and bacterial agents is provided by the system of hermetic sealing of inhabited compartments and the supply of purified air into them, which includes a device for radiation and chemical reconnaissance (PRRR), a filter-ventilation installation, permanent and closed seals, actuators. The system has automatic inclusion with manual duplication.

It was first shown to the general public at the military parade in November1982 g. As of 1995, BMP-2 was in service with the following countries: Russia, Algeria (230 units), Afghanistan, Angola, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, India, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Sierra Leone , Slovakia (93 units), Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Finland (110 units), the Czech Republic (187 units), Sri Lanka, Yemen, Kuwait.

On 29 September 2017, State Corporation Rostek and the RF Ministry of Defense signed a contract for the modernization of 540 BMP-2 and BMD-2 in the framework of the new state armament program for 2018-2025. This was announced on Friday by the head of Rostekh Sergei Chemezov. On the part of the state corporation, the agreement was signed by the Deputy General Director of the Holding "High Precision Complexes" (part of Rostech), the Managing Director of the PCU Dmitry Konoplev, and from the Ministry of Defense - Deputy Minister Yuri Borisov.

"Today we signed an agreement on the modernization of 540 combat vehicles BMP-2 and BMD-2," Chemezov said. According to him, the contract implies the modernization of military vehicles under the state defense order for the needs of the Russian Defense Ministry in the framework of the state program of armaments for 2018-2025. The contract is concluded for 10 years, said Borisov. "We signed today a ten-year contract that will determine your [PCP] production activities for the production of light armored vehicles for the entire period of the new state program," he said.

VARIANTS

A number of product improvements were made to the BMP-2 in the late 1980's.

  • BMP-2D: Variant with add-on plate armor, but which cannot swim
  • BMP-2E: Variant with 6-mm steel plates added and track skirts
  • BMP-2K: Command variant with additional radio
  • BVP-2: Czech production BMP-2





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