5N69 (ST-67) "Salute" / BIG BACK
The start of developing a radar system, which received the code 5N69 (ST-67), came in the second half of the 1960s. The Air Defense Forces badly needed a powerful high-grade three-coordinate radar capable of providing information to anti-aircraft missile forces and aircraft in conditions of the massive use of active and passive jamming. Research Institute of Radio Engineering developed the first domestic three-axis RFCs available commercially. It did not need a radar altimeter and could once during the review at the same time to determine the range, azimuth and height of the target.
Before the advent of the 5H69, the air defense radio-technical forces were equipped with quite complex radar complexes, for example, the 5H87, which included two rangefinders and up to type PRV-13 four altimeter. The latter worked only on target designation and ensured the issuance of altitude with a fairly low rate (on average, up to 3 targets per minute).
In this regard, 5H69 was more informative. This advantage was especially pronounced when it was necessary to deal with high-speed air objects. In addition, the new system could detect targets and determine their characteristics at the farthest boundaries (at medium and high altitudes - up to 450 km). In addition, it had another distinctive feature - it was quite suitable for the air defense of Moscow and the Central Industrial Region of the USSR, which had been created by that time as a system designed to solve its own, rather specific and isolated tasks. In particular, it would not have been possible to hide from aeroballist targets and some classes of operational-tactical ballistic missiles from 5H69, and the new RLK consistently accompanied them.
For the mid-1970s, by many characteristics, the 5H69 was rightfully considered an unsurpassed radar complex. It had applied numerous innovations. In particular, for the first time in this RLC (as in a three-coordinate locator), the principle of frequency beam swing was used. In other words, a consistent method of viewing space.
With the start of operation of the 5N69 in the troops, it became clear that this particular direction in the RTV armament is the most promising. In other words, the ideology in this locator was defined exclusively correctly. And although in addition to this RLC there were numerous experimental developments of other three-coordinate locators, due to various kinds of circumstances, it was 5N69 that were launched into mass production.
Nevertheless, the new radar was initially greeted pretty coolly in the air defense radio troops. A certain lack of understanding of the peculiarities and essence of its use by individual commanders was noted. Many did not like the weight and size characteristics of the 5H69. In fact, in order to deploy the antenna complex, it was necessary to prepare a concrete platform in advance. The total weight of metal antenna systems reached 85 tons, only the rotating part weighed 17 tons. The top of the antenna devices was at the height of an eight-story building. And for all that, the radar was classified as mobile, which, of course, can be considered a fair exaggeration.
Of course, it was a stationary complex. Once deploying 5H69, no one ever redeployed it, which was one of the most significant drawbacks of 5H69. The complex was rigidly tied to a particular territory. There are certain explanations for this. In the second half of the 1960s. it was hardly possible to implement the ideas embodied in 5H69 in a different way: the technologies were at such a level that even the development stage largely predetermined the 85 tons weight.
And yet, the 5N69 should be attributed to the armament of the new generation. In the radio engineering troops for the first time they saw what microcircuits are, for the functioning of which a sufficiently low-voltage supply voltage (5 volts): previously, only 220 volts were considered normal, and the resistors and capacitors were of considerable geometric dimensions. Up to the 5N69, the radio-technical complex in the radio engineering forces was built on electrovacuum devices, using the so-called hanging installation. And in 5H69 block-modular design was used, which, from the point of view of operation, was a real breakthrough. Not to mention the rather high ergonomic performance of the complex. Lighting, heating and air conditioning - in all this 5N69 differed from its predecessors for the better. Conditions of habitability on it were much more comfortable.
But as is well known, everything revolutionary is perceived and inculcated with difficulty. Almost immediately there were problems with the repair, because at first the corresponding base was absent as such. There were no properly trained professionals. In general, the troops were not ready to receive 5N69, especially the command at various levels. It is not surprising that in the reports prepared after conducting trial operation of the 5H69 and analysis of its combat use, attention was drawn first of all to the shortcomings. The negative attitude towards the complex was also expressed in the fact that all proposals for the modernization of the locator were not implemented in the end.
Of course, it was rightly pointed out that 5H69 is very heavy. To put it mildly, the reliability of the first samples left much to be desired. It is not by chance that representatives of industry were frequent guests in the units equipped with the new RLC. First of all, mechanical structures failed. The 17-ton rotating part required considerable effort to implement the review. Due to significant loads, the engines failed and the gearboxes broke.
There were also problems due to the high power of the 5H69 radar. In terms of continuous mode, it was about 15 kW, and in some modes of operation, the so-called "snake" - the irradiating devices of the radar - did not withstand usage. They were not very reliable and often failed. Inhomogeneities in the waveguide path were encountered. The ingress of moisture into the high-frequency path caused many faults in the high power parts.
At that time, the very technology of manufacturing blocks and boards was badly debugged, which was largely due to the relatively low level of industrial culture. As a result - in the so-called "non-solder" 5H69 - multichannel radar, many cells and blocks were the same, but they worked in different elevation modes. And it turned out: then in one channel there is no signal, then in the other.
Sometimes the 5H69 is called the "radar mastodon", which equally accurately reflects both the positive and negative sides of this RLC. Yes, its adoption was a progressive phenomenon in the radio engineering forces. However, the weight and size characteristics of the complex did not withstand criticism.
Nevertheless, 5H69, without much pathos and exaggeration, can be considered an epochal radar. It did the job. The fact that these complexes for more than twenty years continued to be in positions and perform the tasks assigned to them, said a lot. Until recently, they were simply irreplaceable. That is why the engineering and technical staff and industry extended the life cycle of 5H69 as they could. For many of their performance characteristics, the radar was still unique and, in terms of combat capabilities, looks good even today. Although it is hardly fully consistent with the nature and dynamics of modern war with the use of precision weapons.
|Detection range (according to MiG-21)||
|Immunity||from PP 1-2 p / 100 m.; The ACP is 100W / MHz.|
|The composition of the complex||
|For redeployment it is necessary||
|Deployment time||24 hours (really - 30 - 45 days with the participation of the factory brigade).|
|On time||10-12 minutes.|
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