1929 - Field Regulations 29
Voroshilov, people's commissar for military and naval affairs and chairman ofthe USSR Revolutionary Military Council, promulgated Order No 154 of the USSR Revolutionary Military Council of 21 June 1929 put into effect the published "Field Regulations of the Worker-Peasant Red Army" (Field Regulations 29). The field regulations contain directives concerning the command and combat of military formations (regiment, division, corps). They stated that "The regulations do not provide stereotypes, and their directives are to be applied in strict conformity with the situation. Modern combat demands of the Red Army: 1) class-based political education, which is the foundation of the healthy political morale of the unit and a guarantee of the revolutionary stanchness of the army and its fighters ;2) an endeavor to concentrate all forces and resources for an assault in the decisive sector;... 4) strategic and tactical mobility of the troops, which is a most important attribute of a battleworthy army; the closest attention of the entire officer personnel must be paid to the inculcation of troop mobility and flexibility during army training; 5) bold and rapid attack and deft maneuver; the troops' offensive operations must be distinguished by swiftness, pressure and intrepidity..."
"In organizing the actions of the troops for combat the commander takesinto consideration the properties and possibilities of each arm of serviceindividually and uses them in conformity with their properties and possibilities,the nature of the assignment and the situation. Infantry is the main arm of service, victory or defeat of which determines the fate of the battle to a considerable extent. All the remaining arms ofservice assist the infantry in the performance of its combat missions. Infantry has the capacity for concluding a battle in hand-to-hand fighting, capturing the weapons of the enemy and holding a locality and fitting it out with its own forces. A combination of the March and assault of personnel with the powerful fire of all fire means is the basis of modern infantry operations.
"Artillery is in terms of firepower the most powerful arm of service. By defeating the personnel and destroying or taking out the fire means of theenemy, both open and under cover, and combating the enemy's air forces, artillery helps infantry (cavalry) perform its combat missions with the least losses. Artillery anti-aircraft defense is organized by anti-aircraft artillery battalions or specially mounted 76-mm division artillery gun batteries. The anti-aircraft artillery battalion (3 batteries) is capable of covering with dual-layer fire (the fire of two batteries) an area of up to 8 kilometers along the front and up to 7 kilometers in depth. Two anti-aircraft mounted 76-mm field gun batteries can cover a sector up to 5 kilometers long and 1-2 kilometers wide.
"By virtue of its mobility, strategic cavalry is most adapted to a combination of fire by a sudden mass attack in mounted formation against the enemy flank and rear. The modern armament of the cavalry enables it to prepare an attack and carry out combat assignments independently. The cavalry's attack and pursuit of a dispersed enemy infantry leads to the complete annihilationof the latter. The main mission of organic cavalry is reconnaissance. Organic small cavalry unit reconnaissance (in a rifle division and rifleregiment) is usually carried out by individual mounted patrols, varying in strength from a squad to a platoon, in certain sections (routes). The depth of the reconnaissance is up to 15 kilometers (half a day's march) in a rifle regiment; up to 30 kilometers (1 day's march) from the security forces in a rifle division. With the establishment of close contact with the enemy organic small cavalry unit reconnaissance is carried out on his flanks.
"Armored forces, which can move right up close to the enemy, help the infantry (cavalry), increasing its firepower. The dependence of armored vehicles and armored trains on roads and their condition limits their use. Tanks, which are capable of moving without roads and destroying artificial obstacles, are, given mass use, a powerful means of destruction of the enemy's fire means and personnel; they operate with infantry and cavalry.
"Aviation assists the ground forces carry out their combat missions, attacking the enemy's personnel from the air and protecting the former against airattack by taking on enemy aircraft; it paralyzes the enemy's rear; services the command and the troops by reconnaissance, observation of artillery fireand signals; and carries out independent operational assignments.
"Chemical weapons in modern warfare serve as a powerful means of destroyingenemy personnel and sharply restricting his combat activity both on the offensive and defensive and are employed by the main arms of service and bythe chemical arms specially."
"Engineer troops help the other arms of service perform their assignments by preparing the locality (namely, the building and repair of roads and bridges, the technical organization of river crossings, artificial camouflage, particularly complex fortification work, and so forth) and putting it in a condition making its use by the enemy difficult (damaging and destroying bridges and roads and putting up other obstacles).
"The signals troops serve to organize communications and ensure control. Military communications and various types of service ensure the organization of uninterrupted supply and services for the troops. As a rule, supply is effected by the movement of transport facilities from the rear to the front; however, depending on the situation and local conditions, supply may be effected by the forward supply organs' dispatch oftheir own transport facilities to the nearest rear supply establishments."
"Military formations are composed of units of different arms of service; the rifle regiment and rifle division have a permanent strength; the rifle corps consists of two-four rifle divisions. If necessary, military formations are reinforced by artillery, armored, chemical, engineer, aviation and otherunits. The situation may also demand the temporary detachment or organic units from the strength of military formations. Temporary tactical formations (advance guard, rear guard and so forth) are formed from units of different arms of service for the performance of auxiliary tactical assignments. The military formation is headed by a commander and commissar. Control ofthe military formation consists of the HQ, political agency and the chiefs of the branches of the army and services. The temporary tactical formation, depending on its size, is commanded eitherby the commander of the military formation or the commander of the infantry (cavalry) unit."
"The chiefs of special arms of services (in the division and corps: artillery and engineers) are the assistant commanders of the military formation for the combat use of the corresponding units. They are the direct chiefs of the units of the corresponding arms of service which are a part of the formation and temporarily attached and the technical leaders of all units of the formation for the corresponding type of activity. In the event of the attachment to a military formation for combat operations of a unit of an arm of service which is not a part of the formation, its commander acts as chief of this arm of service.
"In the rifle corps and rifle division the chiefs of the arms of service and the senior signals officer act as chiefs of the corresponding supply services. In the rifle regiment the duties of chiefs of artillery and engineers areperformed by the commanders of the regiment's corresponding special units. The chiefs of services (chemical warfare, supplies, medical and veterinary) are in all respects directly subordinate to the military formation commander and in the sphere of technique of performance of the service carry out the instructions of the chiefs of the corresponding services. The chiefs of the services provide the troops with everything necessary and service them, in compliance with the commander's operational decision, in accordance with the instructions of the formation's chief of staff.
"In the rifle regiment the supply services - artillery, chemical warfare,technical and quartermaster supply - are integrated by the assistant regimental commander for administrative affairs. The senior signals officer and chief of the staging-transport service (in the corps) are subordinate to the formation's chief of staff
"The commander and commissar (assistant for political affairs) are entirely responsible for the state and combat capability of the military formation. The commander is personally responsible for operational command of the troops. The commissar (assistant for political affairs) ensures consideration of the political situation at the time of the commander's adoption of an operational decision and implements the necessary political measures in support of the troops' combat activity. The commissar (assistant for political affairs) is obliged to be fully informed about the entire combat activity of his formation and all the commander's plans and intentions. The commander must be conversant with the political work of the formation inorder to best ensure the connection of the troops' combat activity and political work to strengthen the political morale of the formation, enhance military discipline and raise its combat capability."
"As an integral part of the entire system of troop control, the political section implements the necessary political measures geared to the achievement of the troops' successful combat activity. The political section organizes and performs political work among its troops aimed at the army's grasp of a clear comprehension of the goals of the war and the inculcation of revolutionary duty, class consciousness and a constant readiness to sacrifice oneself for Soviet power and the worker-peasant cause."
"The basic task of agitation-propaganda work is inculcation in the army personnel of: the unconditional trust, devotion and cohesion of the entire personnel around the slogans and ideas of Soviet power, the masses' correct understanding of the leading role of the proletariat in the worker-peasant alliance, a correct understanding of the class aims of war and the international interests of the working class and all exploited people and also revolutionary will to win."
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