Antey Concern - History
NII-20 - R&D Institute No. 20
NIEMI Electrical Mechanical R&D Institute
In the early 1950s, the military equipment and armament of the Soviet Army was brewing the transition from artillery anti-aircraft systems to missile weapons. In KB-1, work was underway to create the first Russian anti-aircraft missile system S-25. A young, promising specialist Veniamin Efremov was attracted to setting up work on one of the objects of this system. The C-25 was stationary, rigidly tied to specific points on the map system. Its placement required fortification work, the construction of special sites for the installation of missiles, and the control equipment was cumbersome.
Already then, Efremov had the idea of ??the need to create mobile rocket launchers that would allow the operational guidance of the missile launch guidance and control systems to be quickly moved to the specified defense areas. Soon his plans came true.
In the 1958, Efremova was appointed head of the topic, which, as it developed, was transferred to the experimental design development of the Krug medium-range air defense system. The chief designer and became Veniamin Efremov. Thus began the era of the creation of mobile air defense systems for the Ground Forces. The main and only their developer was determined by NIEMI.
After the “Berkut”, a new major task has been set for the military-industrial complex - to equip the Ground Forces with anti-aircraft missile systems. To this end, TsKB-20 was transformed into NII-20, and Efremov, at the age of 28, was appointed deputy chief engineer. At that time there was only a stationary anti-aircraft missile system in the country. And a complex was needed that could move in military columns with their speed, pass over bridges and in tunnels, be transported by all means of transport, including air, had a short time to alert to the march, had autonomy while covering the troops in isolation from the main forces and functioned in the centralized fire control system during operations as part of a group of forces.
Research work allowed to formulate tactical and technical requirements for the military air defense system, select the appearance of such a complex and confirm the feasibility of the plan. But the practical implementation of a fundamentally new image of the air defense system took place with great difficulty.
Specialists had to solve many military technical problems, on which the combat effectiveness of the first mobile anti-aircraft missile complex ultimately depended. Of particular importance was the linkage of the two seemingly incompatible demands - autonomy when covering the troops in isolation from the main forces and the possibility of using centralized fire control during operations as part of a group of forces. The development team faced many difficulties of a schematic and constructive nature in the application of the element base, the development and placement of airborne components. But the Efremov team was able to find unique solutions.
In December 1961, the test results of the prototype air defense system brought the long-awaited confirmation of the correctness of the decisions taken. State tests of the complex were successfully completed in 1964. February 3, 1965 USSR Minister of Defense R.Ya. Malinovsky signed an order to put the Krug air defense system into service, and on November 7, 1965, the launchers of the new complex participated in the parade on Red Square.
With the advent of highly effective air defense missile systems, combat aircraft began to master low flight altitudes, as they provided a significant increase in the survival rate of air attack weapons. Thus, the task arose of creating an air defense system for fighting low-flying airplanes, helicopters and cruise missiles. Veniamin Efremov was appointed the chief designer of the complex.
The specifics of the "Wasps" are small altitudes of flight of targets, a short time for processing the reflected signals and hitting targets. An important component of the work was the need to place all the means of detecting, tracking, pointing and launching missiles on a single wheelbase of high maneuverability. In addition, also "waterfowl". This required a high degree of automation of all the processes of combat work, and restrictions on the size and weight of a combat vehicle made it necessary to fight for every centimeter and kilogram of it.
The chief designer of the complex, and already by that time the scientific director of the NIEMI, Veniamin Efremov made tough decisions. First, eliminate shooting on the move, replacing it with shooting from a short stop while maintaining the target detection requirement in motion. Secondly, to introduce the second channel auto tracking to ensure salvo firing at the target. The culmination of this decision was the support of the Chief of the Main Rocket and Artillery Directorate, Marshal of Artillery, PN. Kuleshov, who agreed to make changes in the tactical and technical tasks.
It took about a year of hard work of the entire staff of the institute to finalize the existing version of the air defense system, but when a new car came into being, it became clear that this was a completely different technique, a different set. In a very short time, an extensive program of modifications of the air defense system was completed. A prototype combat vehicle in March-June 1970 passed the factory, and in the second half of the same year - state tests. Everything that was created under the leadership of Veniamin Pavlovich Efremov looks fantastic. And this is not only a weapon system, but also a whole galaxy of students
In 1971, NIEMI, under the leadership of V.P. Efremov, commissioned the army's mobile 9K33 "Osa" missile defense system for motorized rifle divisions. The complex was accepted into a series, combat vehicles began to enter the troops. The original technical execution of some systems of the complex, the navigation equipment opened up to combat crews the opportunity to conduct a review of the airspace in motion, and after selecting a target to fire at it from a short stop. Later, the "Wasp" was repeatedly upgraded, which greatly expanded its capabilities. Another significant development of melee systems, carried out under the leadership of V.P. Efremova, became the air defense system "Thor". Its construction was due to the need to achieve high efficiency in the confrontation with high-precision weapons systems that have been widely used in the armies of potential opponents, in particular the United States. The tasks of fighting such targets dictated specific requirements for air defense systems,
The developers managed to implement almost all conceptual requirements, the embodiment of which for many years has become know-how. The Tor system is the first mobile air defense system in the world, designed to combat high-precision weapons and located on a single, unified tracked chassis of high maneuverability. A compact, technically advanced and functionally complete combat vehicle allows performing combat missions, autonomously and as part of an air defense system, to provide combat duty or escort troops in combat, on the march.
In 1984, NIEMI commissioned the 9K330 Thor, the world's first complex to defeat precision weapons. The “Thor” air defense system became the first robot machine with a digital method of controlling systems and elements of artificial intelligence. This complex has repeatedly confirmed its capabilities, including at international exhibitions and shooting. Since 1986, the complex is supplied to the troops.
At this time, events in the world of weapons developed rapidly. The appearance of a two-stage operational-tactical ballistic missile "Pershing" was expected, the detachable warhead of which posed the greatest threat to the Ground Forces. To protect them, a universal anti-aircraft missile system was needed, allowing not only to fight aerodynamic targets, but also to autonomously detect ballistic missiles on descending branches of trajectories.
The assignment for its development was issued in NIEMI under the code S-300V. The chief designer appointed Efremova. By this time, Veniamin Pavlovich had established himself as an experienced designer of anti-aircraft missile technology; his appointment did not cause any objections in the government.
Since 1985, NPO [Scientific and Manufacturing Association] Antey included NIEMI, Strela Research Institute (Tula), Arsenal Plant (Tula) and others. In this association NIEMI is the leading organization. The task of the NPO "Antey" was to create not only weapons for air defense of the Army, but almost all radar equipment for this type of Armed Forces: wearable radar detection of ground targets, radio line of control of anti-tank projectiles, artillery reconnaissance systems, radar sights for anti-tank guns, tank weapons control system. As a front-line means of defense, the S-300B was formed as part of a command post, circular and sector radar, a multifunctional missile guidance station and two types of launchers. They were intended to combat aerodynamic and ballistic targets. The complex also included two types of missiles with corresponding assignments.
At the first stage, the system was created to combat the means of air attack, tactical ballistic and cruise missiles. In this composition, the ZRS passed state tests in 1980-1981, in 1983 it was adopted for military air defense. At the second stage, the ZRS was refined to combat operational-tactical ballistic and aerodynamic rockets, with jammers. State tests of the system were carried out in 1985-1986, it was adopted in 1988. Created under the direction of V.P. Efremova ZRS S-300V has become a great scientific and technological achievement, for many years ahead of similar foreign projects.
In 1991, the NGO Antey was transformed into Antey Concern. Fifteen. With all these reorganizations, V.P. Efremov remained the company's permanent general designer. In 1991, the army adopted the 9K331 Tor-M1 missile defense system with improved tactical and technical characteristics. Also ready for testing is the upgraded S-300NM missile defense system ("Antey-2500") (tests completed in 1995).
In 1998, under the leadership of V.P. Efremova on the basis of the S-300V air defense system was developed a modification, called the "Antey-2500". This system was striking in addition to its former targets high-speed medium-range ballistic missiles, other promising means of air attack. Antey-2500 is the only system in the world capable of effectively fighting non-strategic ballistic missiles with a launch range of up to 2500 kilometers.
Thus, the anti-aircraft missile systems created under his leadership were included in the treasury of outstanding achievements of national scientific thought, and allowed the Ground Forces to increase the defense capability to a height unattainable for potential opponents.
In 2002, after the merger of "Antey Concern" with the NPO Almaz imeni Academician A.A. Raspletin, a single anti-aircraft missile holding (46 industrial and research enterprises and organizations) was established.
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