Antonov AN-14 Clod / An-28 Cash Pchelka
The Antonov AN-14 Clod Pchyelka (Little Bee) is a twin-engined light STOL utility transport, powered by two 300 Ivchenko AI-14RF radial engines. One of the most interesting and beautiful machines among other Soviet light aircrafts. Undeservedly forgotten, the development of multipurpose transport aircraft An-14 "Clod" was completed in 1957. An-14 never gained such popularity of light utility aircraft as An-2 did. But it is a beautiful machine. It is easy to manage, it can carry seven passengers or up to 720 kg payload. With its high-aspectratio braced wing and twin tailfins, it shows signs of inspiration from the French Hurel-Dulbois transports of the early 1950s, the experimental designs which also led to the British Shorts Skyvan and 330.
But the commissioning of a serial aircraft delayed until 1965. During that time, was modified form of wing and improved mechanization of its front and back sides. Production versions feature a very different tail design from the prototype, and the planform of the wing and the arrangement of the high-lift devices are also modified. The nose was slightly lengthened, and clamshell double doors were fitted to the rear fuselage.
After the AN 10 accommodating in its spacious cabins 85 passsngbrs, Oleg Konstantinovich Antonov introduced to civil aviation the An-14, which is inferior in load lifting capacity even to its predecessor the An-2. Civil Aviation is the largest in the world aviation unit, it services not only lines extending over several thousand of kilometers, from Petropavlovsk Kamchatsky or Vladivotok to Odessa. The sky of the Soviet Union was was densely interwoven by a multitude of local air lines, over which more than air passcngers were travelling. That is why the Aeroflot needed good and various air craft, heavy and light ones. The more so since the lerigth of local aviarion routes varies.
The An-14 is a multipurpose aircraft. Depending upon it designation it can be manufactured either in passenger, or in agricultural variants. The passenger variant of the Pchelka is intended for seven passengers. Its cruising speed - 190-210 kr/hr with a range of flight up to 600 km. For 200 km long aviation lines, for which Pchelka was designated for practical purposes, the aircraft will be capable of carrying 9 pxssengers bringing up the load to 720 kg. with full tanks and commercial load of 550 kg the flight range can be increased to 720 km.
The An-14 is a high wing monoplane with dcuble fin vertical empennage. Its length is 11.04, height 4.25 m. The wing isprovide. with autcruatic slats, dual slot extensible flaps and hinged ailerons. Wing span - 22 m, I"ent lkte, - 12.15 m, Load per square meter - B2.5 kg. The power plant consists of two radial piston engines with air cooling AI-14N. Its total take off power is 600 hp. The engines mounted on the An-14 are well known to Soviet flight and engineering-technical cadres and consequently they do not require much introduction.
In comparison with the single engine version it has at least two advantages. First of all - greater reliability of the aircraft. Even at full load the An-14 can continue cruising in case one of the engines develops trouble. Flights on the An-14 will give the young cadres the possibility from the fiiLst stages of individual (independent) operation along air lines and in agriculture to adopt these characteristics, strengthen and develop habits in piloting of aircraft with complex po;er plants.
There is still another feature of the aircraft - its take-off-landing qualities, which for local lines may be of decisite importance. The length of the take-off run of the An-14 is 60-90 m, the length of landing run - 70 -110 meters, at a speed of 65 km/hr. The length of the take off run of aircraft of approximately the same class is 150-200 m. Furthenmore the landing gear of An-14, having a nose wheel, eliminates the possibility of nose over, and the lever suspension of the wheels and low pressure tires allow to operate same, over dirt, sand and snow covered landing strips.
For the agricultural variant of Pchelka the construction bureau developed two kinds of equipmment. One is intended for dusting , the spraying processees. The chemicals are loaded on the ground into tanks, which are then rolled into the cabin of the pilot. The tanks are interchangeable. As long as the aircraft treats seedings from one tank, the other is being charged on the ground. Nothing more can be said, that this not only facilitates the servicing of the machine but it also reduces to a minimum its stay under loaded chemicals. The cost of treating fields from the An-14 aircraft, as shown by preliminary calculations, will be lower by 20-30 % than with the Yak-12.
The apparatus for avietion-chenical operations is easily installed and dismounted from the aircraft. When there is no worki at the field, the aircrift carn be used for transportation of seeds, seedlings, chicken incubators, spawn fish, berries, milk and other agricultural loads.
The technique of piloting the An-14 is simple and accessible to young flying cadres. Navigation and conaunication ejquipmento installed on the aircraft, is intended for the execution of flights not only under visual conditions, but also in case of poor visibility. Special de-icing measures are providede The wing and empennage are provided with a hot air system, the windshield of the pilot cabin and atmospheric pressure pick up - with electric heating. At the time of flight testing the anti-icing system functioned satisfactorily.
The AN-28 is a STOL multipurpose light aircraft with two gas-turbine engines. It is intended for serving local air lines. The airplane is intended for transportation of 15-18 passengers or to 1.5 t of cargo. It is may be equipped with ski and float-type landing gear. A total of 7 modifications were designed.
The development of the An-28 "Cash" was even more prolonged than that of the An-14. Possibly Clog was the original reporting name for the An-28 Cash. It was announced in 1967 that a turboprop version of the type was under development, and the first prototype, designated An-14M, flew at Kiev in September 1969. Powered by two 604-kW (810-shp) TVD-850 turboprops, the new version was stretched to accommodate up to 15 passengers, and weighed 5600kg (12,500lb) fully loaded.
On January 29, 1973 the AN-28 first took-off from Svyatoshin airfield. A production prototype of the aircraft with engine capacity of 715 KW (960 HP) was demonstrated in 1974, at which time the change in designation to An-28 was announced. Production is by PZL in Poland and the aircraft is in service with both civil and military users.
All variants of the An-14 and An-28 share the same pod-and-boom fuselage layout, permitting easy loading of cargo in the freight role. The high wing carries full-span double-slotted flaps and slats, ailerons being built into the outer flap sections.
Series production An-28 transportation aircraft is the base for An-28TD modification and the latter polish version called M28 'Bryza', fitted with two PZL-10S engines. Airplanes like this example are in use both by WLOP (Air Force) and LMW (Navy Air Force). This aircraft carries a side number '0205' and its works number is AJG002-05, machine belongs to 13 Air Transport Unit in Krakow - Balice. 'Bryza' means in English 'Breeze'.
Airplanes of the AN-28 family were manufactured serially in Poland at the aviation plant in Mielez town. In common in 1984-1992 170 airplanes were built in Poland. 157 of them were delivered to Aeroflot. Morethan 10 airplaneswerebuiltforthePolishcustomers.
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