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Military


Aircraft Designators - Inter-War

All lists are lies. Long lists bury the important amid the trivial, and short lists are without texture or nuance. The challenge at hand is to triage these aircraft and include enough prototype and designs to give a flavor of the times, without burying the important aircraft in an avalance of doodles on napkins. For those seeking completeness, consult "History of aircraft design in the USSR until 1938" V.B.Shavrov, ed., [Moscow "Engineering" in 1978, 576 pp., with a circulation of 25,000 copies] describes about 800 serial, experimental and original types of domestic aircraft entered the history of the period.

From 1925 to 1940, many different designation systems were used for Soviet aircraft. Matters are further complicated by the fact that from 1925 to 1940, several different designation systems were used for Soviet aircraft. The People's Commissariat of Defense (NKO Narodny Komissariat Oborony) had a system for specific military operation for which the aircraft was designed, similar to the American systems. But even this "system" was very un-American [that is, in exact numerical sequence]. This designation system, while similar to the long standing US Air Force Mission Designation System taxonomy [F = fighter, B = bomber, etc], is noteworthy in several regards. In contrast to the American system, the Soviet system was far more granular, with over three dozen designators, compared to about a dozen American designators. Some of the designators had consecutive numerical sequences, notably Long-range Heavy Bombers, while others were little more than a grab-bag of random alpha-numeric designators [eg, despite the existence of the PS-124 / ANT-20 bis, fewer than a dozen other identifiable aircraft had the PS Passenger Aircraft designator, and none were in discernable sequence].

This Soviet designator system was prevalent at a time when the actual mission distinctions between some classes of aircraft were quite hazy - designers would fabricate prototype airframes that were potentially applicable to a variety of missions. Commonly, a single airframe would be put forward to do service as a bomber, a mail plane, and a passenger plane. This taxonomic ambiguity was not uniquely Soviet, but was particularly pronounced in the land of the Soviets. Prototypes did not receive mission designators until accepted for service by the People's Commissariat, so most aircraft of the period only received design bureau designators. And there were many, many design bureaux. And many many prototypes.

And, as seen in Germany, each designer had another designator, usually based on the initials of the designer or organisation. This could get confusing - for example, A.N.Tupolev's ANT-6 was also known as the TB-3, etc. Of note, unlike the Cold War system of designators based on production organisation, these designators were personal to the designer himself. This could get confusing - for example, A.N.Tupolev's ANT-52 [aka SZ and BB-1] was also known as the Su-2.

One-off prototypes, which were seemingly without number in this time before computer simulation, would receive a design bureau designator but not an Air Force designator. Soon after the formation of the People's Commissariat of Aviation Industry [NKAP Narodny Komissariat Aviatsionnoy Promyshlennosti] in 1939, only design bureau designators were used. By the end of 1940, when the aircraft designation system was introduced in the USSR, the names of the heads of the design teams [not bureaux] were used.

Further enriching [complicating??] matters is the existence of yet a third designator series, derived from the TsKB - Central Design Bureau - Projects. This alphanumeric series was in use during the 1930s to reference either designs deriving from one or the other design bureaux of the secret police, or the "super" design bureau that was associated with TsAGI. The details of all this a a bit hazy.

There were also many local designation systems. Thuss it should also be noted that the projects of a number of I-153 modifications, made in a special design bureau of Plant No. 1, had their own system for designating new developments from I-153 to I-171. Of the modifications created in this group, the I-153 without braces with improved aerodynamics (the so-called I-153 uncracked or I-153B), I-154 with M-63, I-157 are mentioned in the documents. More detailed information about these projects from I-154 on I-16 8 was not preserved, since the documentation of the design bureau of plant No. 1 was destroyed during its evacuation to Kuibyshev during the Great Patriotic War.

A Autogyro
ARK Arctic coastal reconnaissance Articheski Razvedchik Korabelny
B Bomber - bombardirovschik
BB Short-range bomber Blezhanaya Distantsia Bombadirovshchik
BSh Armored attack aircraft Bronirovannye Shturmovik
DAR Long-range arctic reconnaissance
DB Long-range bomber Dalny Distantsia Bombadirovshchik
DVB Long-range high-altitude bomber
DI Two-seat fighter Dvukhmestny Istrabitel
DIS Twin-engined escort fighter
G Paratroop transport
I Fighter Istrebitel; literally "destroyer"
KOR Ship-borne reconnaissance Korabelny Razvedchik
M Seaplane
MA Amphibian
MBR Short-range maritime reconnaissance Morskoy Belzhanaya Distantsia Razvedchik
MDR Long-range maritime reconnaissance Morskoy Dalny Distantsia Razvedchik
MI Fighter seaplane Morskoy Istrebitel
MK Maritime cruiser (heavily armed seaplane)
MP Transport seaplane
MR Reconnaissance seaplane Morskoy Razvedchik
MT Mining and TorpedoMinirovanie Torpedonesets
MTB Maritime heavy bomber
MU Trainer seaplane
P Mailplane Poshtova
PB Dive bomber
PI Single seat fighter
PL Transport Perevozchik
PS Passenger transport Perevozchik Samolet
PS Mail transport Poshtova Samolet
R Reconnaissance Razvedchik
ROM Open sea reconnaissance
SB High-speed bomber Skorostnoy Bombardirovshchik
SCh Low-level attacker Shtumovik
SChR Attack fighter/reconnaissance
SPB Fast dive bomber
TB Heavy bomber Tyazshely Bombardirovshchik
TSh Heavy attack aircraft
U Primary trainer Uchebno Samloyet
UT Basic trainer Uchebno Trenirovochny
UTI Fighter trainer Uchebno-Trenirovochny Istrebitel
V Airship
VI High-altitude fighter
VIT High-altitude tank destroyer
VT Supervised design

Systems for the designation

of military aircraft of the Soviet Union

Pre-revolutionary Russia Imperial (until 1917) did not have a single national unified system, but instead relied on aircraft backed by manufacturers like Sikorsky Ilya Muromets or Anetra Anasal.

The pre-war Soviet power

Soviet power, used from shortly after the revolution in 1923 and, until gradually replaced after 1940, was divided into function with numbers assigned to the government's order. common as there were multiple values for individual emails. Designers and manufacturers also had their own internal designations, which could be confused for official government designations. For example, Tupolev's projects used MURAVYa pointer for A.N. Tupolev, and Yakovlev's projects used Air for A.I. Rykov, the communist leader to whom he reported. Not all designations were raised, some numbers were assigned to projects that were subsequently canceled, often at a very early stage of development.

Print prefixes

(Cyrillic signs in round bracket)

  • (A) - Avtozhir (autogyro)
    • A-4 -
    TsAGI
    • A-7 - Kamov
    • Arctic Research Aircraft)
    • ARK 3 - Chietverikov
    • ARK 5 - Polikarpov R-5
    • B (B) - Bombardishchik (bomber) (Universal designation - not used for
  • VISMUT (BI) - Blitzniy Istrebitel (short wrestler/close-range wrestler)
    • Vismut 1 - Bereznyak-Isayev
    • BB (BB) - Blizhniy Bombardiishchik ( short-range bomber
      • BB-1 - Sukhoi Su-2
      • BB-2 - Grushin
      • BB-22 - Yak Yakovleva 2
      • BB-22bis - Yak Yakovleva 4
      • BSh (BS) - Bronirovannyi Shturmovik
      • BSh-1 - Vultee V-11
      • BSh-2 - Ilyushin Il
      • DI (DI) - Dvukhmestnyi Istrebitel (two-seater wrestler)
      • DI-1: Polikarpov
      • di-2: Polykarpov
      • DI-3: Grigorovich
      • DI-4:
      • DI-6: Kochyerigin/TsKB-11
      • DI-8: Tupolev SB
        • BASE (DIP) - Dvukhmotorny Istrebitel Pushech
        • :THE
            : MURAWEI Tupolev 29
            • DB (DB) - Dalniy Bombardirovshchik (long-range bomber)
            • DB 1: MURAWEI Tupoleva 25
            • DB
            • DB 3: Ilyushin TsKB-30, re-defined By Il-4
            • DB 4: Ilyushin TsKB-56 (prototype only)
            • DB 240: Yermolayev, reassigned to your 2
            • DB-A - Bolkhovitinov
              FB (FB) - FrontOvoyi (border bomber)
            • FB: Tupolev Tu-2
            • G (A) - Gruzovoi (cargo, usually converted heavy bomber)
          • G-1: Tupolev TB 1 as transport
          • G-2: Tupolev TB 3 as transport
          • GST Gydro Samolyot Transportnyj (cargo hydroplane)
          • GST - United Catalina PBY
              • I
                • - I
                • I-1 - Grigorovitch (double designation)
                • I-2 - Grigorovitch
                • I-3 - Polikarpov
                • I-4 - MURAWEI Tupolev 5
                • I-5 - Polikarpov
                • .
                • I-6 - Polykarpov. Renamed to I-5 after winning the competition with Tupolev I-5.
                • I-7 - Heinkel HD 37 (licensed lysing German aircraft)
                • I-8 - MURAWEI Tupolev 13
                • I-9 - Grigorovich
                • I-10 - Grigorovich
                • I-11 - Polikarpov
                • I-12 - MURAY Tupolev 23
                • I-13 - Polikarpov
                • I-14 - MURAWEI Tupolev 31
                • I-15/I-15bis/I-153-
                Polikarpov TsKB-3
                • I-16 - Polikarpov TsKB-12/18 /29
                • I-17 - Polikarpov TsKB-15/19/25/33
                • I-18 - Polikarpov TsKB-43 (unbuilt)
                • I-21 - Ilyushin
                • I-21 - Pashinin
                • I-22 -
                Lavochkin-Gudkov LaGG-1
                • I-26 - Yak Yakovleva 1
                • #39 #39.
                • I-28 - Yatsenko
                • I-29 - Yak Yakovleva 2
                • I-30 - Yak Yakovleva 3 (only prototype)
                • I-180 - Polikarpov (not related to I-18)
                • I-185 - Polikarpov
                • I-200 or
              • i-61 - Polykarpov and later MiG 1
              • Lavochkin-Gorbunov-Gudkov LaGG-3
                • IP (PI) - Istrebitel Pushetchnii (gun wrestler)
                • IP 1 - Grigorovitch
                • IP 4 - Grigorovitch
                • IP 21 - Pashin
                  • 1 - Nikitin
                  • K (K) - (ship) Korablennyi (Universal designation - not used for certain types)
                  • KR (KR) - Korabelniiivedchik ( ship reconnaissance)
                  • KR-1 -
                  Heinkel HD 55
                  • KR-2 - Beriav Be-2/KOR-1
                      • KR (KR) - KReiser (cruiser- heavy long-range wrestler)
                        • swimming
                        • KOR (KOR) - Korabelnio O Razvedchik - (ship catapult reconnaissance)
                        • KOR-1 - Beryev be 2
                        • KOR-2 - Beryev be 4
                        • KOR-3 - Beryev Be 5, not built
                        • M (Universal designation - not used for certain types)
                          • mBR (ICBM) - Morskoi Blizhnii Razvedchik (short-range reconnaissance hydroplane)
                            • MBR-1 - Project Bartini
                            • MBR-2 - Member of Parliament Berieva 1
                            • MBR-4 - See 62bis Savoy-Marchetti
                            • MBR-5 - Samsonov
                            • MBR-7 -
                            Beriev MS 8
                            • MDR - Morskoi Dalnii Razvedchik (long-range reconnaissance hydroplane)
                            • MDR-1 -
                            Grigorovitch ROM 2
                            • MDR-2 - MURAVETutu 8
                            • MDR-3 -
                            Chietverikov TsKB-11
                            • MDR-4 - MURAVEI Tupoleva 27, later MTB-1
                            • MDR-5 -
                            • ---
                              • - MDR-7 - Shavrov
                              • MI (MI) - Mnogomestnii Istrebitel (multi-life wrestler)
                              ,
                              • MI 3 - MURAVEI Tupolev 21
                                    • Member of Parliament (MP) - Morskoi
                                      • Member of Parliament 1 - Beriev MBR-2
                                      • Member of Parliament 2 - PRK Chietverchikov 3
                                        • G-G-N (MR) - Morskoi Razvedchik (hydroplane intelligence)
                                        • G-H 1 - Polykarpov R-1 on sailings
                                        • G-N 2 - Grigorovitch
                                        • G-N 3 - OMOS
                                        • G-N 3 - Grigorovitch
                                        • G-H 5 - Polikarpov R-5 on sailings
                                        • G-N 6 - Tupolev
                                        • MTB (MTB) - Morskoi Torpedonosi Torpedo Bomber
                                      • MTB-1 - MURAWEI Tupolev 27
                                      • MTB-2 - MURAWEI Tupolev 44
                                        • MU (MU) - Morskoi Uchebny (hydroplane coach)
                                          • MU-1
                                            • MU-2 - Polykarpov U-2M
                                            • MU-3 - Moskalev
                                            • MU-4 - Nikitin
                                            • ps (PS) - Passazhirskii Samolyot (passenger plane or airliner)
                                            • PS 3 - Tupolev R-3
                                            • PS Nyeman/Harkov R-10
                                            • PS 7 - MURAVY Tupolev 7
                                            • PS 9 - MURAVY Tupolev 9
                                            • PS 30 - Martin 156
                                            • PS 35 - MURAVY Tupolev 35
                                            • PS 40 - SB Tupolev
                                            • PS 41 - SB Tupolev
                                            • Li-2/Douglas DC-3
                                            • PS 89 - COOL RULEVILLE 1
                                            • PS 124 - MURAVEY Tupolev 20
                                              • R (R) - Razvedchik (intelligence)
                                              • R-R--Z - Polikarpov
                                              • .R-1 - Polykarpov
                                              • R-2 - Polykarpov
                                              • R-2 - Polykarpov
                                              • R-2 - Polykarpov
                                              • R-2 - Polykarpov
                                              • R-2 - Polykarpov
                                              • R-2 - Polykarpov
                                              • R-2 - Polykarpov
                                              • R-2 - Polykarpov
                                              • R-2 - Polykarpov
                                              • R-2 - Polykarpov
                                              • R-2 - Polykarpov
                                              • R-2 - Polykarpov
                                              • R-2 - Polykarpov
                                              • R-2 - Polykarpov
                                              • R-2 - Polykarpov
                                              • R-2 - Polykarpov
                                              • R-2 - Polykarpov
                                              • R-2 - Polykarpov
                                              • R-2 - Polykarpov
                                              • R-2 - Polykarpov
                                              • R-2 - Polykarpov
                                              • R-2 - Polykarpov
                                              • R-2 -
                                              • Polykarpov
                                              • R-2 - Polykarpov
                                              • R-3 - MURAWEI Tupolev 3
                                              • R-4 - Tupolev (only prototype)
                                              • R-5 - Polykarpov
                                              • R-6 - MURAWEI Tupolev 7
                                              • R-7 - MURAVEI Tupolev 10 (prototype only)
                                              • R-9 - Kochigyerin R-9
                                              • R-12 - Yakovlev (prototype only)
                                              • RD (RD) - Rekord Dalnost - (long distance make airplane recording)
                                              ,
                                              • RD - MURAVE Tupolev 25
                                              • ROM (?O?) - Razvedchik Otkrytogo Morya (???????? ???? ????????)
                                              • ROM 1 - ??????????
                                              • ROM 2 - ??????????
                                              • SB (??) - Skorostnoi Bombardirovshchik (???????????????? ??????????????)
                                              • SB: ??????? ???????? 40
                                              • ShB (??) - Shturmovoi Bombardirovshchik (??????????????-?????????)
                                              • ShB: ????? ??-2
                                              • SPB (???) - Skorostnoi Pikiruyuschii Bombardirovshchik (???????????????? ?????????? ??????????????)
                                              • SPB - ?????????? ??????? I-16, ???????????? ? ???????? Zveno
                                              • SPL (???) - Samolyet dlya Podvodnikh Lodok (??????? ??? ????????)
                                              • SPL - ???????????
                                              • SS (SS) - Stratosfernii Samolyot (stratospheric aircraft)
                                              • SSS - Chizhevbok BOK-1
                                              • T (T) - Torpedonosets (Torpedo Bomber)
                                                • Tupolev 41
                                                • TB (TB) - Tiazholyi Bombardirovshchik (heavy bomber)
                                                • TB 1 - MURAWEI Tupolev 4
                                                • TB 2 - Polikarpov (only prototype)
                                                • TB 3 - MURAWEI Tupoleva 6
                                                • TB Tupolev 16
                                                • TB 5 - Grigorovich
                                                • TB 6 - MURAVETuleva 26
                                                • TB 7 - MURAWEI Tupolev 42 (re-defined Pe-8)
                                                • TSh (TS) - Tiazholyi Shturmovik (heavy chopped attack)
                                                • TSh-1 - Grigorovitch (changed Polikarpov AR-5)
                                              .
                                              • TSh-2 - Grigorovitch (changed Polikarpov A R-5)
                                                ,
                                                • TSh-3 -
                                                Kocherigin TsKB-4
                                                  • U
                                                  Avro 504
                                                  • U-2 - Polycarp U-2/Po-2
                                                  • U-3 - Michelson
                                                  • u-4 - Michelson
                                                  • U-5 - Nikitin NV-5
                                                  • UPB (UPB) - Uchyebno Perekhod
                                                  i
                                                  • UPB - Kazan KAI-3
                                                      • TIME TIME (UT) - Uchebno-Trenirivochnyi (advanced coach)
                                                      • ONLY TIME 1 - ONE TIME Yakovlev 1
                                                      • ONE TIME 2 -
                                                      • TIME TIME 3 - TIME 3
                                                      • UTI (UTI) - Uchebno-Trenirivochnyi Istrebitel (advanced wrestler coach)
                                                        • UTI-1 - Polikarpov I-15 as the trainer of the wrestler
                                                        • UTI-2 - Polikarpov I-16 as the trainer of the wrestler
                                                        • UTI-4 - Polikarpov wrestler coach I-16UTI
                                                        • UTI-5 - Nikitin NV-2
                                                        • UTI-6 - Nikitin NV-4
                                                        • UTI-26 - Yakovlev Yak-1/Yak-7
                                                        • VIT (VIT) - Air Tank Fighter
                                                        • VIT-1 - Polikarpov
                                                        • VIT-2 - Polykarpov

                                                        Soviet power after December 9, 1940

                                                        System after December 9, 1940 (according to order No. 704) used letter abbreviations for the design bureau,

                                                        then successive numbers, sometimes with odd numbers for fighters (e.g. Yak 3, MiG 15, Su-27...) and even numbers for other types (e.g. Il-2, Tu-16, Su-34, Tu-154...).

                                                        helicopters

                                                        Contrary to Western sources, official Soviet designations did not include the names of the designers (e.g. Yak Yakovlev 1), only abbreviations (i.e. Yak 1), however, initially, full names like The Yakovlev-1 were sometimes used. assigned individually for each developer to the aircraft when they entered service. The aircraft was also often used development designations in the design bureau, like aircraft 105, or MURAWEI 105, which led to the Tu-22, or T-6 for the Su-24 and the industrial production name assigned to the facility where production was undertaken.

                                                        The Air Coordination Committee of NATO Standardization, reporting on the name system (used because the designations of new types were often unknown to NATO) was based on the type of indication of the first letter of the aircraft (B q bomber, C, cargo, F q wrestler, H helicopter, M q different) or rocket and 1 syllable if screw or 2 if the aircraft - or with a rocket engine.

                                                        :An

                                                        (An): Antonov

                                                        :Ar (Ar): Archangel

                                                        :BI (BI): Berezniak-Isaev

                                                        :Be (Be): Be

                                                        :

                                                        :Che

                                                        :Il (Il): Ilyushin

                                                        :Ka (Ka): Kamov

                                                        :La (La): Lavochkin

                                                        :LaG (LaG): Lavochkin-Gorbunov

                                                        :LaGG (LaGG)

                                                        : Myasishchev

                                                        :Mi (Mi): Mil

                                                        :MiG (MiG): Mikoyan-Gurevich, before the death of Artem Mikoyan in 1970, then just Mikoyan

                                                        :Pe (Pe): Petlyakov

                                                        :P

                                                        :P (S): Shavrov

                                                        :" : Scherbakov

                                                        :Ta (TA):

                                                        Ts (Ts): Tsybin

                                                        :Tu (Tu): Tupolev (the bureau was named MURAEV

                                                        )

                                                        :Yer (Yer): Yermolayev

                                                        See also
                                                        • list of military aircraft of the Soviet Union and CIS

                                                        External references

                                                        • the plane's list is named in the aviation.ru



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            Page last modified: 31-10-2019 16:40:15 ZULU