Project 545 "Laika-Navy" nuclear submarine cruiser
The Russian word "Laika" means barker (from Russian: "lai" = bark, or “layat” which literally means “barker”). A "Laika" is a small Russian, Siberian or Nordic hunting dog, or any dog belonging to one of the breeds developed from this breed. These dogs, of medium size and white or gray coloring, are noted for its sturdiness and intelligence. Laika was name of a dog of this breed sent aloft in the second Soviet artificial earth satellite in November, 1957.
The implementation of the design and development work on a multi-purpose nuclear submarine of a new generation was provided for by the draft state armament program for the period 2018–2027. In 2018 a source in the Russian defense industry told TASS that the delivery of the fifth-generation head submarine was scheduled for 2027.
The JSC “St. Petersburg Marine Bureau of Engineering“ Malachite ”named after Academician N. N. Isanin (JSC“ SPMSBM Malakhit ”) begun development work (OKR) under the code "Laika" to create a fifth-generation nuclear submarine. Laika has already been assigned the 545 index. The highlight of this submarine is the speed, it can move at a speed of 35 knots. The "Ash" can accelerate to just 31 knots. This was announced on 17 April 2019 to TASS by a source in the military-industrial complex. According to him, at the “end of 2018, Malachite completed research work under the Husky code, identifying the appearance of a fifth-generation nuclear submarine, the results of the work were approved by the military department.”
After “Malachite”, he proceeded to the next stage in the creation of the submarine under the code “Laika” the agency’s interlocutor said. He did not disclose the alleged technical characteristics of the developed submarine, but noted that “one of its types of strike weapons will be Zircon hypersonic missiles. The source added that the Laika will have a modular design and a single integrated combat control system with artificial intelligence.”
The Huski was a 12,000 ton design, while Laika is a presumably less expensive 11,340 ton design. At the exposition of the exhibition of samples of modern and promising weapons and military equipment deployed on December 24, 2019 at the National Center for Defense Management of the Russian Federation before an extended meeting of the Board of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation and visited by President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin, among other things, a model of promising fifth generation nuclear submarine cruiser of project 545 (code "Laika-Navy").
According to the accompanying plate, the fifth-generation nuclear submarine of Project 545 (code "Laika-Navy") is designed to destroy critical enemy targets, destroy surface ships, submarines, ships and boats, enemy stationary fixed structures.
The main armament: 3M-14 Caliber, ZM-22 Zircon, 3M-55 Onyx, SAM for MANPADS Igla, rockets 81RU “Response”, missiles “Predator”, torpedoes “Physicist-1”, torpedoes USET-80, anti-torpedoes "Lasta", mini-missile PMR-2, mine-torpedoes MTPK-1.The “Zircons” can be launched from outside the anti-submarine defense zone - the flight range of the “Zircons” is about 500 km. The Kh-32 cruise missiles have three significant advantages, thanks to which they are best suited for the characteristics of “killer aircraft carriers”. They have a large range of 1000 km, so their carriers "shoot back" without entering the AUG air defense zone. The missiles are near-hypersonic, their speed reaches 4.6 M at the finish. And at the same time they maneuver. And, finally, the X-32 have high noise immunity, that is, it is extremely difficult to deal with them using electronic warfare systems.
In June 2018, the Malachite SPMBM annual report It was reported that the ROC to create a promising new generation of multipurpose nuclear submarines should begin in 2019. The document noted that the work was provided for by the draft State Armament Program for the period 2018-2027, the work code was not seemed to be.
Presumably, new submarines will not use rubber coatings designed to make the ship inconspicuous for sonars. Instead, the hull of the submarine will be made of composite materials. Ships will also receive “silent” torpedo tubes, in which water will be used instead of compressed air to launch ammunition. In addition, submarines will receive hypersonic Zircon cruise missiles.
According to his information, the submarine will receive a modular design and a single integrated combat control system using artificial intelligence. And here the most interesting part begins, because the word “modular” evokes poorly hidden skepticism among modern naval specialists. The modularity was good in theory, in practice it is difficult to change the composition of the modules of weapons and equipment.
In this regard, the story of Danish Fluvefisken patrol boats with their modular StanFlex system, which in reality turned out to be not what was originally planned, is indicative. Easy-to-replace (in theory) modules had to be properly stored and protected, and crews needed to be trained for them. All this cost money and required strength, which led to a rethinking of the program. As practice has shown, the “temporary” module easily turns into a permanent, active until the moment of modernization of the ship. In this case, modularity, experts say, can really be in demand.
Be that as it may, there are much more chances that under the guise of "modularity" the promising fifth-generation Russian nuclear submarines will be able to take on board various tactical means. For example, a boat will be able to carry promising missile torpedoes to destroy enemy submarines or the aforementioned Zircons designed to combat surface formations. Finally, the third option is to use the boat as a full-fledged SSBN (nuclear submarine with cruise missiles) for massive attacks of enemy fortifications located on land. Creating a new strategic nuclear submarine is a completely different issue.
For each type of cruise missile, a specific boat can be "customized", since the "Laika" will have a modular structure. It can be made a carrier of a different class of missiles - and Zircon, and Caliber, and Onyx. It is assumed that with a full displacement of the boat of 12 thousand tons, up to 80 cruise missiles will be placed on it.
Mostly, of course, the acoustic fields should be reduced. For this, for example, a traditional water-to-water nuclear reactor can be replaced with a new type of reactor, which is absolutely silent during operation. That is, it does not require any transfer pumps. This is possible if metal melts are used as the working fluid.
Some completely new materials may be used for the hull, with which suppressing noise is expected. But this is not just composite materials that can withstand significant loads under a water column of several hundred meters. At the same time, the noise of the Laika significantly decreases, and the sensitivity and selectivity of its sonar increases.
|Displacement, Submerged||11,340 tons|
|Length||~110 meters ??|
|Average draft (on design waterline)||about 9 m|
|Installed power||Nuclear reactor|
|Speed||35 knots (65 km/h; 40 mph)|
|Test depth||600 m (2,000 ft)|
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