Project 1833 "Berezina"
code "Pegasus" Comprehensive supply ship
Until the 1960s the plans for combat use ships of the Navy of the USSR envisaged the only a fleeting fighting collision with application of mainly of rocket weapons. Replenishment of ammunition and or missiles at sea was not provided for, as it would not be needed in this "Battle of the First Salvo". Proceeding from these provisions, the Soviet ships needed only replenishment with fuel, other liquid goods (eg, drinkable and boiler water, the lubricating oil), and food supply. These tasks were solved with the construction, of the re-equipment of to Navy requirements, the of various of tankers and water transports.
With the advent of in the composition of the Soviet fleet of aircraft carriers and the formation of of operational groups of ships, there began to be various new scenarios of combat use. And it was considered one variant might be long ocurring combat service, in fact including and in remote areas of the World ocean. The led to the appearance of what in many respects was a unique in national experieince of a new kind of vesssel: the ship of comprehensive supply (KKS) Berezina. In the structure of the Navy of the USSR it became a logical consequence of the exit of the latter into the broad areas of the World ocean.
In the the middle of the the 1970s it became understandable, that for the incurring combat service in these districts, it would be necessary to have specialized ships capable of providing the operational the connection of the fleet with all kinds of of supply and munitions, and that it was no less that it was important to act jointly with them. With the whole conspicuity the relevance of solutions of this problem stood up on the of the first same of large-scale the policy of the Navy of the USSR in 1970 year was known under the overall the name «Ocean». Task of ensuring the of Soviet of operational forces in remote areas of the World of the ocean was a required solution.
One major constraint related to the deployment of ships in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans was the fact that, once there, the Soviets had trouble replenishing their fleets. Their tendency to build small vessels limited the amount of supplies they can carry and thus the time they stay on station. Many of their larger ships did not have at-sea reload capabilities so they must return to port for supplies. Realizing this as a problem, the Soviets worked on their sea replenishment techniques. A new replenishment-type ship has come on line to help overcome this deficiency. This class of vessel is called the Berezina, a 40,000-ton multipurpose ship with six replenishment stations and helicopter capabilities.
The tactical-information Technical specification for development of supply vessel's of the project 1833 code «Pegas» was issued by the Navy in 1967 to Central Design bureau «Chernomorsudoproekt» in the city of Mykolayiv. By the decision the government and the the Navy leadership of the USSR January 26, 1970 technical project of the ship of supply of the project 1833 was approved. "Berezina" was held on the stocks Shipyard named after 61 Communards in Nikolaev August 18, 1972. Through the use of new shipbuilding technology with the use of pre-formed bulk and flat sections, the assembly of the hull on the slipway was fast enough.
The official launching of the supply ship " Berezina "was held April 20, 1975. Complex and in many ways a new ship for completion caused a lot of criticism on the part of industry and the Navy. Numerous alterations and omissions and then jeopardizes the planned construction time and testing. However, gradually acquired a custom finish building the image of a modern ship. In parallel with completion of the supply vessel in January 1976 in Nikolayev formation of the crew, and on 26 December, a check on its board.
Mooring trials supply ship "Berezina" took place in the period from January 3 to March 18, 1977, followed by July 17 for the first time the ship left the shipyard waters and went to Sevastopol, where the ship arrived on August 3, 1977, and began preparing for the state tests. On December 1, 1977 ship officially lifted the naval flag of the USSR. In the period from 5 to 20 December 1977 on the artillery range near the Black Sea Fleet of Sevastopol were practical firing of anti-aircraft missile systems, artillery complex, and complex staging decoys.
At the same time the various modes of operation were comprehensively tested, including the main power plant and ship electrical equipment. There was a safety mechanism and high quality. On December 30, 1977 the receiving act was signed, approved by commander in chief of the Soviet Navy Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Sergei Gorshkov.
By all military logic, Hilaire Belloc thinks, the career of Napoleon I, and with it the French Revolutionary epoch, should have ended in the early winter of 1812 in the half-frozen marshes around the River Berezina, instead of two and a half years later in the green and gold lowlands of Brabant. Napoleon discovered when he reached the Berezina River 28-29 November 1812 that the bridges had been taken over by Russian forces. A ford was found several miles north of the proposed crossing and Napoleon ordered two bridges built. Meanwhile a successful diversionary force was sent north which fooled the Russians into thinking that the French would cross there. Napoleon's forces were able to secure a vital portion of the west bank. Because Napoleon had ordered the burning of non-essential materials just days before, a great deal of bridge material had been destroyed. French troops were forced to find wood in a nearby town.
Repeated crossings, mass confusion, and general apathy led to the collapse of the artillery bridge on two separate occasions. When hordes of non-combatants refused to cross the bridge to escape the advancing Russian troops, the bridge was burned and thousands of people were killed. The bank became a scene of horror, of indescribable carnage, especially when the Russians' repeated attacks on the last troops to cross the river had driven the crowd of non-combatants to the river's edge. Everyone then rushed the bridges, which were soon broken down, as much by the disorder as by the fugitive's weight. The French, unhappy and helpless spectators of these scenes of horror and cruelty, were able from our side of the river to gauge roughly the number of victims of the Russians. Some 10,000 lives were lost. The estimate of the number of unarmed stragglers, camp-followers, refugees, women and children is not exaggerated. Murat wanted the Emperor to abandon the Grande Armée — which name, by force of habit, they still gave to their rabble of half-animate cadavers — and to take a chance at being smuggled across the Polish border in disguise. Ney was overheard to mutter in German: "If he gets out of this, he must have the devil in him."
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