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Project 1232.2 Zubr - Program

Project 12322 ship "Zubr" was designed by the Central Marine Design Bureau "Almaz", which designs hovercraft since 1955 and is a continuation of works on creation of such ships, held in Russia since 1934 CMDB "Almaz" series designed to build and operate in the Navy hovercraft project "Skat", "Kalmar", "Omar" and "Jeyran". By the end of the 1970s Soviet designers had quite extensive experience of construction of ships on an air cushion. The series were launched and operated for a long time such ships as "Skate", "Squid" and the project 12321 "Adelia".

For the development of the concept of military hovercraft in 1978, the Navy Command gave the job "Almaz Central Marine Design Bureau" to create a more powerful assault ship. KB launched the beginning of the work, calling the project under code 12322 "Zubr". The plan was to increase the travel speed, load and airborne artillery and electronic equipment. The project, which has become the development of "gazelles", headed by chief designers LV Osimo, Yu Mokhov and YP Semenov, under the supervision of Captain 2nd Rank V. Litvinenko (later Captain 2nd Rank Yu Bogomolov) from the Navy. The original layout of the ship is a credit to the deputy chief designer of GD Koronatova, developed the preliminary design. Head MDKVP under MDK-95 experimented and built a prototype in 1986. After extensive testing went into the battle of the Navy in 1988. As a result of these tests, a series of other ships got some design changes.

Construction of the first four DKVP began in 1983 at the shipyards Primorsky shipyard and shipbuilding plant "Sea" . Head MDKVP pr.12322 under MDK-95 was the number actually experienced, built in 1986 and after extensive testing entered the combat strength to the Navy in 1988 year. According to test results in the design of mass-produced vehicles changes, including in the radio-electronic equipment.

Apparently some ten units were built between 1986 and 1994. By the beginning of the 1990s the USSR Navy included 8 MDKVP. After the collapse of the USSR and the section of the Black Sea fleet of Russia took 5, Ukraine transferred three ships - "Kramatorsk", "Horlivka", "Artemivsk" - and 2 unfinished at the shipyards in Feodosiya. One of them ( "Donetsk") in June 1993 was completed and put into the composition of the Ukrainian Navy. Subsequently, three of them were written off. The six remaining Russian units are generally believed to remain in service, though some may be inoperable or in reserve. In the early 1990s two units were cancelled and scrapped incomplete. The disposition and chronology of specific units is conjectural.

Kefallinia Zubr Rapid transport ships http://server2:8080/military/world/china/zubr.htm"> On 25 May 2000 a ZUBR air-cushion landing craft was laid down at ALMAZ Shipbuilding Company. The contract for delivery of this craft was signed with Hellenic Ministry of Defense. On 24 October 2000 Almaz Shipbuilding Company launched the first of two air-cushion landing crafts ZUBR project that are under building for Hellenic Navy.

Two ships were built in Ukraine, and 2 more - in China with the participation of Ukrainian specialists. According to the Center for Army, Conversion and Disarmament in 2009 Ukrainian companies entered into a contract to supply the party of small landing craft air cushion type "Bison" to China in the amount of US $ 315 million. In September 2012, representatives of the plant FGC "The Sea" and GC "Ukrspetsexport" announced the beginning of mooring trials of the first made by a ship contract. April 12, 2013, according to the contract, China passed the first small landing ship.

The newspaper "Izvestia", citing a source in the headquarters of the Russian Navy, reported that the Russian Navy decided not to order the construction of small amphibious hovercraft project 12322 "Bison." Two ships of the project 12322 - "Mordovia" and "Eugene Kocheshkov", standing on the arms of the Baltic fleet, planned to support in fighting condition, as long as they have not developed their full share. Instead of "Bison" the Navy planned to build new boats dynamic and non-dynamic type maintain afloat, to be used on a variety of amphibious ships, including a helicopter type "Mistral".

On November 25, 2014 Republic of Crimea Industrial Policy Minister Andriy Skrynnik said that based shipyard "Sea" in Feodosia planned to resume construction of the landing craft air cushion "Zubr" project. The Russian Defense Ministry will decide on ordering new Zubr-class and Tsaplya-class Murena hovercraft by early 2017 at the latest, United Shipbuilding Corporation (USC) Vice President Igor Ponomarev said 02 June 2016. "The Russian Defense Minister is considering the matter of ordering Murena and Zubr-class air-cushioned landing craft, with the decision on procurement to be taken after clarification with the state armaments program by the end of the year or by the start of next year," Ponomarev told RIA Novosti at the ongoing KADEX-2016 military hardware exhibition in Kazakhstan.

A next generation large air-cushioned landing craft is being developed by Russia’s Almaz Central Marine Design Bureau, Russian media reported on 20 October 2015. “This is a dramatically updated version of the Soviet-era Zubr-class military hovercraft built in Ukraine. The main engine will be made in Russia and the craft will carry a new weapons system. To top it all off, the new hovercraft will look better too,” Dmitry Tsygankov, the head of marketing and technical information at Almaz, told RIA Novosti.

As of June 2017 Russia planned to resume the production of the Project 12322 'Zubr' amphibious assault ships. The new ships are slated to replace other landing ships. The construction of the first new 'Zubr' is set to begin in 2018.

Andrei Frolov, military expert and editor-in-chief of the Russian 'Export of Arms' magazine told Izvestia that the resumption of the construction of attack hovercraft will support the competitiveness of Russia's shipbuilding industry. "Such a high-speed landing craft will be in demand in closed theaters like the Black, Baltic or Caspian seas," he added.

According to the expert, there are not enough existing Russian amphibious ships from the 'Dyugon' and 'Gyurza' projects to solve the problems facing the Navy and the Marine Corps. "We still do not have good diesel engines, which led to problems with the 'Dyugongs'. The 'Zubr' has already been tested, well-proven and was even in demand abroad."

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Page last modified: 27-06-2017 18:55:26 ZULU