Project 1128 KIK Sibir
About the end of the 1950s there appeared a fundamentally new class of ships, providing support to testing rocketry and space exploration. At first, under time pressure, for this purpose civilian vessels were converted. The first measurement systems became the four-ship converted "Donbass" vessels (built in 1952-1957 years by order of the USSR at the Gdansk shipyard in Poland).
On April 9, 1958 the government adopted a decree to ensure that in the II quarter of 1959 the operation of Ship Measuring Complex (KIK) on converted ships. They are required for completion of work starts the first Soviet intercontinental ballistic missile R-7 of OKB S.P.Korolev with a full flight range (8,000 km) in the Pacific Ocean. Development and transfer the plant to the main drawings on the body was already necessary by December 1958. Due to the tight deadlines design and technical documentation should produce in abbreviated and simplified form.
The development of these projects was led by chief designer CDB-17 V.V.Ashik. Project materials were presented to the customer 30 December 1958, reviewed and approved - in January 1959. Techproekt 1128 provided for conversion of the three ships and TEHPROEKT 1129 - one ship as a broadcasting point. For conversion into a Ship Measuring Complex (KIK) were identified: the Ministry of the Navy - steamers "Pervouralsk" and "Perm", the Ministry of Fisheries - steamers "Prokopyevsk" and "Pavlograd." They were handed over to the Baltic Shipyard in November-December 1958. After acceptance the yard began to dismantle associated with a change in purpose ships: deck machinery removed (cargo winch), ventilation, wooden rooms' holds, equipment rooms on the main deck, in part - pipelines ship systems (fire, ballast, drainage, etc.).
On board the "Perm" (to dismantle) at the end of December 1958 were carried out acoustic field testing in the Bay of Hara-Lahti Gulf. They confirmed that the noise level when operating machinery and electrical equipment in the most "silent" mode is close to the required standards. On the reverse transition to Leningrad on a vessel identified and checked fuel consumption control.
On January 5, 1959 the government issued a decree on the procedure for execution of works related to the refurbishment of the "Donbass" class and their transfer to the Far East. Project 1128 "Pavlograd," "Pervouralsk", "Prokopyevsk" and in 1129 the project "Perm" were classified as expeditionary oceanographic vessels (EOS) I rank. They got new names: EOS "Sakhalin", "Suchan", "Siberia" and "Chukotka".
CDB-17 performed conversion of ships under the design documentation at the Baltic Shipyard (chief builder A.M.Kosach) involving counterparties to June 30, 1959. In addition, ships mounted a platform for special means of measuring complex, a helicopter hangar and personnel of the expedition. This was done due to the elimination of cargo holds. In order to ensure the specified autonomy and cruising range, the volume of fuel oil tanks were increased and provision store (with the installation of steam jet refrigeration machines for cooling provisions) and superstructure volumes. Additionally mounted three diesel generators with a capacity of 300 kW (with equipment of diesel fuel tank) supplies electricity to the work of measuring devices.
Decree of the Government on May 16, 1959 was changed the route of the expedition ships go to the place of home - the Northern Sea Route. It demanded that the Baltic plant to perform a number of works on ships, provides a transition in difficult ice conditions. The conversion of ships such as "Donbass" in the vessels of floating measuring complex plant was conducted in conditions of irregular metal supply, electric cable and counterparty of the product. The yard worked on a rigid schedule, in three shifts. In those days, one shift at the vessels have occupied 3,000 people.
Mooring trials were held in April and June 1959. On June 20 crews took the vessels, an experimental test the stability of vessels (inclining) was held on 27-29 June, in late June, completed their treatment at the station demagnetization. After that, the vessels moved to Kronstadt for drydocking and installation on buildings near the waterline more reinforcements. Ice belts and other constructions increased the strength of the transition of the Northern Sea Route. This completed the installation and perform acceptance testing. On July 20, 1959 they were successfully completed. And on July 24 on the eve of the Day of the Navy, on ships raised flag of hydrographic ships. On the same day began the transition to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, and the ships arrived on August 30. Crews began to prepare for the first outlet to the Pacific Ocean. They had to perform martial (measurement) works on developing new models of intercontinental ballistic missiles.
In connection with the further build-up of production of new types of intercontinental ballistic missiles and carrier rockets and spacecraft vehicles by government decree on 27 October 1960 it was decided to create a second floating measuring complex.
State Committee on Shipbuilding of the USSR Council of Ministers by the order of 15 November of the same year ordered the CDB-17 to develop the technical design and produce working drawings for the construction of ships of this complex (Project 1130). Customer has issued terms of reference at the end of December 1960. It takes into account the experience of creating the first set, and provided for an increase and renewal of measuring instruments, increased requirements for habitability, cruising range and autonomy.
At first, radio-technical armament consisted of a two-axis interference-protected Cactus radar operating in the decimeter range of Neptune radio waves and navigation direction finders. Then the ships took turns receiving the more modern Angara radar and the Don navigation radar. It was revolutionary to install BRS equipment at the KIKs in 1970-1972, and at Spassk in 1980. Experts took quite a long trip to study new equipment at the Kura training ground.
A distinctive and undoubted feature of the ships of Project 1128 from other naval ships was the availability of computers, first it was the Ural computer , and then the Mir-2 . They provided the processing of both target designations and measured parameters. Very hard in the early 1970s. “Mir-2” was introduced because of the sensitivity to vibration of the hull from working diesel generators. Special technical facilities include the Kama-M station, as well as the SK, Tral-K, BRS-4 and PRK-M telemetry stations. On board there was also an optical observation equipment FRS-MK, a single time system “Cypress” and stabilization “Complex”.
The last stage of modernization of pr. 1128 took place in the mid-1970s. The Sibir and Sakhalin CFCs were significantly refitted, and Spassk a bit later at the turn of the 1980s. The most important thing, of course, is the change - an additional helicopter deck was made, which immediately changed the appearance of the first Siberia, and then other ships. This allowed the use of heavier helicopters in the future, made the helicopter deck more spacious and convenient for take-off and landing, especially since they began to use the R-653 radio drive equipment.
Towards the end of operation, pr 1128 was seriously worn out. There were big problems with the host machines. Things were no better with the case. More and more often dangerous incidents began to happen, either at Chukotka or at Siberia. So in 1988, in the Sea of Okhotsk, Sibir began to receive sea water through the underwater part of the hull. First, one, and then another, ships of pr. 1128 became tankers for Chazhma, Chumikan, Marshal Nedelin and Marshal Krylov. Only Spassk, which underwent modernization in the 1980s, was still considered a floating ship for some time and independently reached India in order to end its heroic and difficult journey there in 1996. Spassk and Chumikan, already flying the civil flag, stood for a long time on the roads of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky in anticipation of some customs and other decisions. It was easy to recognize them by the U-shaped mast and the Elm, but the view was no longer combat. The crews rebelled slightly, but nobody needed them anymore. Spassk sold for $ 868,500, Chumikan - 1,544,000 S USA, two dollars for each mile traveled. True, Chazhma was sold for just $ 205,000.
|Project 1128 - measuring ships|
|renamed 14 May 1973|
|Project 1129 - retransmitting ship|
|General characteristics||Project 1128|
Converted in 11.1958-1959 from Donbass Type cargo ships |
in Baltiyskiy Shipyard #189, Leningrad:
|Length||108,25 meters / 352 feet|
1 x 2500 hp MR-9.5 steam machine|
1 x fixed pitch propeller
3 x 300 kW diesel generators
1 x 100 kW diesel generator
|Range||10000 nmi (10 knots)|
|Armament||1 Ka-15 helicopter|
|Electronics|| MR-200 «Kaktus» air/surface search radar, |
«Neptun» navigation radar,
«Kama-M» special equipment
|Complement||276 (57 officers)|
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