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Jangbogo-III Batch-II - lithium battery

Defense Agency Authority (Wang Jang-hong) announced 26 December 2018 that the basic design of next-generation submarine (Jangbo-go-III Batch-II), which has improved performance compared to the one launched in September, has successfully completed. The first version of Batch-I, the first version of the Jangbogo-III submarine developed in Korea, was launched in Daehoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering on 14 September 2018. The Jang Bogo-III submarine adopts the Batch concept to apply the latest technology. The basic design was carried out for about 30 months. The term is applied to the fact that the speed of the technology development is fast or it takes a long time to power up.

The improved submarine's brain and eyes such as combat system and sonar system' s performance, and improved survivability and operational ability of submarine such as target search ability. The localization rate also increased to about 80% compared to 76% of Batch-I.

After completion of the basic design, the Jang Bogo-III Batch-Class II submarine will begin construction in the latter half of 2019. It was expected that the Navy's self-defense capability will be strengthened by possessing a national strategic weapon system capable of devising and constructing submarines that incorporate cutting-edge technologies with domestic technology and responding to all-round threats. It was expected to create good quality jobs that can sustain growth, not simple jobs, due to the vigor of the shipbuilding industry with the participation of various small and medium sized companies in the shipbuilding sector.

"We have successfully established the basic design and have secured the opportunity to secure underwater power that can contribute to robust security and self-reliant defense," said Daejin Lee, "We hope that it will contribute to strengthening national competitiveness by contributing to the creation of high quality jobs for the activation of shipbuilding industry through development".

South Korea says it has developed lithium-ion batteries that can double the operational hours of submarines compared to those with lead-acid batteries. The lithium-ion batteries were created for the countrys next-generation attack submarines, expected to launch in the mid-2020s, according to the Defense Acquisition Program Administration, or DAPA. Following 30 months of development, the batteries passed a technology readiness assessment, a step toward integration on a weapons platform, the agency said in November 2018.

Defense Agency Authority said on 07 November 2018 that it had passed the Technology Maturity Assessment (TRA), which evaluates whether the submarine lithium battery system, which is being developed for the first time in Korea, can be installed in real ships. Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) is a formal process to quantitatively assess how mature technical elements of the weapon system are matured. Accordingly, the Jang Bogo-III Batch-II submarine will be equipped with a lithium battery system developed through domestic research.

From July 2016, six research institutes including Samsung SDI and five research institutes, including the Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, jointly conducted research on the lithium battery system for submarines under the supervision of Hanwha Ground Defense for about 2 years and 6 months. It was successful.

Submarine lithium battery system is directly related to the survival of submarines, so research and development have been carried out with the most emphasis on safety and reliability. Especially, in case of explosion of lithium battery, we confirmed that we satisfied all the extreme conditions such as seawater, shock, explosion, fire, and temperature to be encountered in operation of submarine through domestic certification authorities. The reliability and safety of the lithium battery system for submarines has been greatly improved by pre-verification of the performance and safety of the submarine lithium-ion battery system in a submarine-like environment.

Lithium battery system for submarine has the advantage of greatly improving underwater navigation time and high-speed start-up time and greatly reducing maintenance items by extending the lifetime more than twice as long as lead acid battery system used in existing submarines. "The development of a lithium-ion battery system for submarines with performance and safety guarantees a leading position in the world for the construction of submarines, as well as a technical ripple effect for related private sectors such as ships," said Jeong Il- I expect it to be big."

The Jangbogo-III Batch-II class submarine had undergone a basic design and applied the lithium battery system developed with pure domestic technology to improve the sustainability of underwater operation and the time to maneuver at high speed. Despite the history of the lead acid battery (LAB) in marine and submarine applications, it is considered to be somewhat unreliable. Problems are still encountered with short circuits that can lead to self-discharge, sudden-death and cell replacement. The failure of a single cell can significantly degrade the overall performance of a larger battery.

Secondary, or rechargeable, lithium ion batteries are used in many stationary and portable devices, such as those encountered in the consumer electronic, automobile, and aerospace industries. The lithium ion class of batteries has gained popularity for various reasons including a relatively high energy density, a general lack of any memory effect when compared to other kinds of rechargeable batteries, a relatively low internal resistance, and a low self-discharge rate when not in use.

Most state of the art energy storage systems use lithium ion battery chemistry, with graphite anodes that intercalate lithium upon charging, mixed transition metal oxide cathodes that intercalate lithium during discharge, a micro-porous polyethylene electrode separator, and electrolyte formed from a dielectric mixed solvent composed of organic carbonates and high-mobility lithium salts. The movement of the lithium ions between the intercalation anodes and cathodes during charge and discharge is known as the "rocking chair" mechanism. Cells with liquid electrolytes are usually contained in cylindrical or prismatic metal cans, with stack pressure maintained by the walls of the can, while cells with polymer gel electrolytes are usually contained in soft-side aluminum-laminate packages, with stack pressure achieved through thermal lamination of the electrodes and separators, thereby forming a monolithic structure.

Over the past decade, these systems have attained outstanding specific energy and energy density, exceptional cycle life and rate capabilities that enable them to now be considered for both vehicular and power tool applications, in addition to their early applications in wireless communications and portable computing. The best commercially available, polymer-gel lithium ion battery now has a specific energy of 180 to 200 Wh/kg, an energy density of 360 to 400 Wh/L, and a reasonably good rate capability, allowing discharge at C/2 or better.

Both liquid prismatic and polymer gel cells have been incorporated into large high-capacity power packs and used to power the mobile electric vehicles. Such high capacity systems have state-of-the-art computerized charge and discharge control, which includes graphical user interfaces, sensing for monitoring the health of individual cells, and charge balancing networks.

Such lithium ion batteries, which rely on the rocking chair mechanism, are generally believed to be safer than those where lithium exists in the reduced metallic state. However, the use of flammable liquid-phase and two-phase polymer gel electrolytes, coupled with a high energy density, a relatively delicate 20-micron thick polymeric separator, and the possibility of lithium plating and dendrite formation due to non-uniform stack pressure and electrode misalignment has led to safety problems with these energy storage systems. The possibility of such an event occurring on commercial airliners, where many passengers carry laptop computers and cell phones with such batteries, is especially disconcerting. These events have occurred on much larger scale, and have caused industry-wide concern in the continued use of this important technology.

The ability of lithium batteries to undergo repeated charging-discharging cycling over their useful lifetimes makes them an attractive and dependable electrical energy source. Compared with a Zn--Mn dry battery, a lithium ion battery is a new type of power source for storing energy which performs advantages of high energy, high working voltage, wide range of working temperature, and long storage life. The lithium ion battery becomes a new generation of green power and rapidly becomes a new favorite in battery market.

The large-sized lithium ion batteries are greatly different in the required life property from small-sized power sources for cell phones and mobile devices. Whereas the life property is about 3 years because small-sized power source applications have a fast product cycle, large-sized lithium ion batteries need to have the long-term life property over an at least 10- to 15-year period. Therefore, the life property of the large-sized lithium ion batteries is required to have a low capacity degradation rate to the number of times of charge and discharge, that is, an excellent cycle property.

Large cells having large area electrodes suffer from low manufacturing yields compared to smaller cells. If there is a defect on a large cell electrode more material is wasted and overall yields are low compared to the manufacturing of a small cell. Take for instance a 50 Ah cell compared to a 5 Ah cell. A defect in the 50 Ah cell results in 10.times. material loss compared to the 5 Ah cell, even if a defect for both methods of production only occurs every 50 Ah of produced cells

Another issue for large cells is safety. The energy released in a cell going into thermal runaway is proportional to the amount of electrolyte that resides inside the cell and accessible during a thermal runaway scenario. The larger the cell, the more free space is available for the electrolyte in order to fully saturate the electrode structure. Since the amount of electrolyte per Wh for a large cell typically is greater than a small cell, the large cell battery in general is a more potent system during thermal runaway and therefore less safe. Naturally any thermal runaway will depend on the specific scenario but, in general, the more fuel (electrolyte) the more intense the fire in the case of a catastrophic event. In addition, once a large cell is in thermal runaway mode, the heat produced by the cell can induce a thermal runaway reaction in adjacent cells causing a cascading effect igniting the entire pack with massive destruction to the pack and surrounding equipment and unsafe conditions for users.

The promise of solid state is clear. Compared with today's lithium-ion cells, solid-state batteries offer higher energy density -- which translates into higher power capacity -- and maintain better stability at high voltages. They also run cooler and are less likely to catch fire.

The major players in the South Korea lithium ion cell and battery market are Samsung SDI Company Limited, LG Chem Limited, SK Innovation Company Limited, Kokam Company Limited, Enertech International, Inc. and Routejade. The market for lithium ion cells and batteries in South Korea is at its early growth stage. The market is concentrated with a small number of large companies which have strong domestic as well as global presence. The market grew at a double digit growth rate during CY2012 CY2017 with the surge in the growth in end user application areas such as ESS (Energy Storage System) and EVs (Electric Vehicles) as well as consumer electronics.

The lithium ion cell and battery market in South Korea has been segmented by types of batteries into Li-NMC, LFP, LCO and Others. Revenue from Li-NMC has accounted for the highest share in the market because it is considered to be the safest battery and is used in a large number of applications including EVs and consumer electronics. The market has also been segmented by battery capacity into 0-3,000 mAh, 3,000-10,000 mAh, 10,000-60,000 mAh and More than 60,000 mAh. Of these, 3,000 10,000 mAh accounted for the highest share of the market by revenue due to its common usage in consumer electronics. All companies present in the market manufacture batteries of this capacity.

In the market segmentation by application areas, Consumer Electronics had the highest revenue share with lithium ion batteries used in almost all portable devices including power banks, mobile phones, smartphones and laptops digital cameras. ESS/UPS category captured the second highest share followed by automotive sector and then industrial sector. Within Consumer Electronics, mobile phones accounted for the highest revenue share followed by laptops and tablets. Utility and Commercial was the leading category by revenue under ESS/UPS due to widespread usage of lithium ion batteries in large utility scale projects. Under Automotive sector, Hybrid Electric Vehicles category accounted for the highest share by revenue. Construction Equipment held the highest share in the Industrial Sector segment because of common usage of lithium ion batteries in housing and commercial construction projects.

The South Korean lithium ion battery market is concentrated with a few large players competing in the market. Two of these major players accounted for majority of the revenue share in the lithium ion battery market in South Korea in CY2017. Companies compete on the basis of configuration of batteries, durability, quality, recharge cycle as well as number of applications they can cater to. Firms also invest in promotional strategies such as advertisements to increase consumer awareness of their products.

China, Japan, India, and South Korea are well positioned to enter the field of lithium ion battery. Government organization provides funding supports to several research projects in this field. The South Korean lithium ion battery market is expected to grow at a positive double digit CAGR during the forecast period. Growth in the market is expected to be driven by developments in end user applications. The consumer electronics segment is expected to contribute through increased number of mobile phone and laptop users. However, the major growth drivers the ESS and EV segment which will positively impact the market through furthered implementation and effect of the governments Green Energy Policy as well as rising environment awareness of the population as a whole.

Development of lithium-ion batteries for submarines is a great achievement in the global submarine market, said Rear Adm. Jung Il-shik of the DAPAs next-generation submarine project group. We expect this successful development of lithium-ion batteries to raise South Koreas reputation as a submarine maker, as well as to have a great ripple effect through the commercial sectors.

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