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Japanese Army & Navy Aircraft Type Numbers

Each type of aircraft entering production for the JNAF after 1920 was given a type number combined with a brief description of its primary function. Initially related to Showa dates, in 1929 the type number became the last two digits of the year in the Japanese calendar year. The reputed date of the foundation of the Empire of Japan is 660 BC. Japanese historians ascribe to that date an Imperial Rescript said to have been issued by the first Emperor, Jimmu Tenno. Thus the Aichi dive-bomber which entered production in 1939 (2599 in the Japanese system) was the Type 99 Carrier Bomber. Only a single digit was used when the year ended in 00, as with the Type 0 Carrier Fighter (thus the name "Zero") which entered production in 1940 or the Japanese year 2600.

From 1927, new Army aircraft were given a type number based on the last digits of the Japanese year that the type was accepted into service. Up to the year 2599 (1939 in the West) the last two digits formed the type number. In 2600 (1940) the number 100 was used, and from 2601 (1941) only the last digit of the year was used. Thus, the Army Type 97 Heavy Bomber and Army Type 97 Fighter were both accepted in 2597 (1937) and can be differentiated by the functional description attached to each.

Service Type Number Function Manuf. Model Code Name
2590 / 1930
Navy Type 90 Operations Trainer Mitsubishi K3M1 PINE
Navy Type 90-2 Flying-Boat Kawanishi H3K1 BELLE
2593 / 1933
Army Type 93-2 Twin-engine Light Bomber Mitsubishi Ki-2-II LOUISE
Navy Type 93 Intermediate Trainer Kugisho K5Y WILLOW
2594 / 1934
Navy Type 94 Reconnaissance Seaplane Kawanishi E7K ALF
2595 / 1935
Army Type 95-1 Intermediate Trainer Tachikawa Ki-9 SPRUCE
Army Type 95-3 Primary Trainer Tachikawa Ki-17 CEDAR
Army Type 95 Fighter Kawasaki Ki-10 PERRY
Navy Type 95 Reconnaissance Seaplane Nakajima E8N1 DAVE
2596 / 1936
Navy Type 96 Carrier Fighter Mitsubishi A5M CLAUDE
Navy Type 96 Carrier Fighter ** Mitsubishi (See CLAUDE) SANDY
Navy Type 96 Carrier Attack Bomber Kugisho B4Yl JEAN
Navy Type 96 Carrier Bomber Aichi D1A2 SUSIE
Navy Type 96 Reconnaissance Seaplane Aichi E10A1 HANK
Navy Type 96 Attack Bomber Mitsubishi G3M NELL
Navy Type 96 Transport Kugisho L3Y TINA
Navy Type 96 Reconnaissance Seaplane Watanabe E9W SLIM
2597 / 1937
Army Type 97 Command Reconnaissance Plane Mitsubishi Ki-15 BABS
Army Type 97 Heavy Bomber Mitsubishi Ki-21 SALLY
Army Type 97 Heavy Bomber ** Mitsubishi (See SALLY) JANE
Army Type 97 Fighter Nakajima Ki-27 NATE
Army Type 97 Fighter ** Nakajima (See NATE) CLINT
Army Type 97 Fighter * Mitsubishi ABDUL
Army Type 97 Medium Bomber * Kawasaki JULIA
Army Type 97 Light Bomber Mitsubishi Ki-30 ANN
Army Type 97 Transport Nakajima Ki-34 THORA
  Type 97 Light Bomber * Mitsubishi NORMA
Navy Type 97-1 Carrier Attack Bomber Nakajima B5N1 & 2 KATE
Navy Type 97-2 Carrier Attack Bomber Mitsubishi B5M1 MABEL
Navy Type 97-3 Carrier Attack Bomber Nakajima B5N1 & 2 KATE
Navy Type 97 Flying Boat Kawanishi H6K MAVIS
Navy Type 97 Transport Nakajima L1N1 THORA
Navy Type 97 Seaplane Fighter * Nakajima ADAM
Navy Type 97 Reconnaissance Seaplane * Aichi BOB
2598 / 1938
Army Type 98 Light Bomber Kawasaki Ki-32 MARY
Army Type 98 Direct Co-operation Plane Tachikawa Ki-36 IDA
  Type 98 Medium Bomber * Heinkel He 111 BESS
  Type 98 Showa Light Bomber * Vultee V-11GB MILLIE
Navy Type 98 Reconnaissance Plane Mitsubishi C5M BABS
Navy Type 98 Reconnaissance Seaplane Aichi E11A1 LAURA
Navy Type 98 Bomber Float Plane * Aichi IONE
2599 / 1939
Army Type 99 Twin-engine Light Bomber Kawasaki Ki-48 LILY
Army Type 99 Assault Plane/Tactical Recon. Mitsubishi Ki-51 SONIA
Army Type 99 Advanced Trainer Tachikawa Ki-55 IDA
Navy Type 99 Carrier Bomber Aichi D3A VAL
Navy Type 99 S.E. Dive Bomber Seaplane ** Aichi (See JAKE) JUNE
Navy Type 99 Flying-Boat Kugisho H5Y CHERRY
Navy Type 99 Four-engine Flying Boat *   JOAN
2600 / 1940
Army Type 100 Command Reconnaissance Plane Mitsubishi Ki-46 DINAH
Army Type 100 Tactical Pilot Trainer Mitsubishi Ki-46-II KAI DINAH
Army Type 100 Interceptor Fighter Mitsubishi Ki-46-III KAI DINAH
Army Type 100 Heavy Bomber Donryu Nakajima Ki-49 HELEN
Army Type 100 Transport Mitsubishi Ki-57 TOPSY
Army Type 0 Medium Bomber ** Mitsubishi (See SALLY) GWEN
Army Type 0 Single-seat Twin-engine Fighter * Mitsubishi HARRY
Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter Mitsubishi A6M ZEKE / ZERO
Navy Type 0 Reconnaissance Seaplane Aichi E13A1 JAKE
Navy Type 0 Small Reconnaissance Seaplane Kugisho E14Y1 GLEN
Navy Type 0 Observation Seaplane Mitsubishi F1M1 PETE
Navy Type 0 Transport Douglas DC-3 L2D2/5 TABBY
Navy Type 0 Transport Mitsubishi L4M1 TOPSY
2601 / 1941
Army Type 1 Fighter Hayabusa Nakajima Ki-43 OSCAR
Army Type 1 Single-seat Fighter ** Kawasaki (See OSCAR) JIM
Army Type 1 Advanced Trainer Tachikawa Ki-54a HICKORY
Army Type 1 Operations Trainer Tachikawa Ki-54b HICKORY
Army Type 1 Transport Tachikawa Ki-54c HICKORY
Army Type 1 Freight Transport Kawasaki Ki-56 THALIA
Army Type 1 Transport Kokusai Ki-59 THERESA
Army Type 1 Light Bomber * Nakajima (See EVE) JOYCE
Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Mitsubishi G4Ml/G4M6 BETTY
Navy Type 1 Formation Escort Fighter Mitsubishi G6M1 BETTY
Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Trainer Mitsubishi G6Ml-K BETTY
Navy Type 1 Transport Mitsubishi G6M1-L2 BETTY
Navy Type 1 Target Plane Kugisho MXY4  
Navy Type 1 Dive Bomber * Nakajima (See JUDY) DOT
Navy Type 1 Single-seat Fighter ** Mitsubishi (See ZEKE) RAY
2602 / 1942
Army Type 2 Single-seat Fighter Shoki Nakajima Ki-44 TOJO
Army Type 2 Two-seat Fighter Toryu Kawasaki Ki-45 KAI NICK
Army Type 2 Advanced Trainer Manshu Ki-79  
Navy Type 2 Training Fighter Mitsubishi A5M4-K  
Navy Type 2 Fighter Seaplane Nakajima A6M2-N RUFE
Navy Type 2 Carrier Reconnaissance Plane Kugisho D4Yl-C JUDY
Navy Type 2 High-speed Recon. Seaplane Shiun Kawanishi El5Kl NORM
Navy Type 2 Flying-Boat Kawanishi H8K EMILY
Navy Type 2 Training Flying-Boat Aichi H9A1  
Navy Type 2 Land Based Reconnaissance Plane Nakajima J1N1-C IRVING
Navy Type 2 Gekko (Night Fighter) Nakajima J1N1-S IRVING
Navy Type 2 Primary Trainer Momiji Kyushu K9W1 CYPRESS
Navy Type 2 Intermediate Trainer Kyushu K10W1 OAK
2603 / 1943
Army Type 3 Fighter Hien Kawasaki Ki-61 TONY
Army Type 3 Command Liaison Plane Kokusai Ki-76 STELLA
2604 / 1944
Army Type 4 Heavy Bomber Hiryu Mitsubishi Ki-67 PEGGY
Army Type 4 Special Attack Plane Mitsubishi Ki-67-I KAl PEGGY
Army Type 4 Fighter Hayate Nakajima Ki-84 FRANK
Army Type 4 Primary Trainer Kokusai Ki-86 CYPRESS
Army Type 4 Assault Plane Kawasaki Ki-102b RANDY
Army Type 4 Special Transport Glider Kokusai Ku-8 GANDER
Army Type 4 Special Transport Glider** Kokusai Ku-8 (GANDER) GOOSE
2605 / 1945
Army Type 5 Fighter Kawasaki Ki-100  
Navy Type D Transport Douglas DC-3 TABBY
Navy Type He Interceptor Fighter Heinkel A7He1 (He 112B-0) JERRY
Army Type LO Transport Lockheed Model 14 THELMA
Army Type I Heavy Bomber Fiat B.R.20 RUTH
Navy Type S Two-seat Fighter Seversky A8V1 DICK
(*) fictional, did not exist (**) identified as more than one type, i.e. duplicated

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