Iraqi National Accord
Several nonsectarian parties played important roles in Iraqi politics since the fall of Saddam Hussein. Iraqi National Accord (al Wilfaq) is led by Ayad Allawi, who was prime minister of the Interim Iraqi Government and remained an influential opposition figure in the permanent government. Despite Allawi's prominence and U.S. backing, the party fared poorly in the December 2005 elections.
Founded in 1990 and headed by interim Prime Minister Iyad Allawi. The INA was one of the prominent opposition groups that received funding from the United States before the overthrow of the Hussein regime. Also known as the National Reconciliation Movement.
The group published its "political program" in its newspaper, "Baghdad," on 17 February 2004. It stressed the need to transfer sovereignty in accordance with the agreed upon date between Iraqis and coalition forces, as well as the transfer of responsibility for natural resources and foreign policy to Iraqi hands; it stressed the need for a national reconciliation project that includes a financial settlement for police, army, and government workers who were dismissed from their duties by the coalition, and the participation of those not involved in the regime's crimes in a new civil society; strengthening security and defense capabilities; and adopting new economic initiatives. The INA also calls for strong relations with Iraq's neighbors, the establishment of a vibrant civil society, and the drafting of a strong constitution that would protect the rights of all Iraqis.
Allawi is a former Ba'athist who left Iraq in the 1970s after a falling out with Hussein. He later survived an assassination attempt in the U.K. in 1978, purportedly ordered by Hussein. Membership of his group largely consists of ex-Ba'athists and military men opposed to the Hussein regime. A medical doctor by training, Allawi is a Shi'a.
2010 - Iraqi National Movement (Iraqiya)
Iraqiya won the most seats in Iraq's 2010 parliamentary election with strong support from minority Sunnis, but failed to form a majority coalition and agreed to join a unity government led by incumbent Prime Minister Maliki's National Alliance.
Iraq's president asked Shi'ite incumbent Nouri al-Maliki November 10, 2010 to retain his position as prime minister and form a new government, but a dispute in parliament on a newly reached power-sharing deal prompted most of the Sunni-backed opposition to walk out, underscoring the agreement's fragility. Iraqi lawmakers re-elected Jalal Talabani as president. The Kurdish leader then nominated Mr. Maliki to form a unity government, paving the way for his return to office for another four-year term. Under Iraqi law, he had 30 days to form his Cabinet.
But newly elected parliament speaker Osama al-Nujaifi, a Sunni Arab, and roughly two-thirds of the other 91 lawmakers from the Iraqiya coalition -- including former Prime Minister Ayad Allawi -- walked out of the session to protest the rejection of a series of demands they made. Among them were commitments to release detainees and reverse the disqualification of three Iraqiya candidates for their alleged ties to the outlawed Ba'ath Party of executed former Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein. Sunnis view the controversial de-Baathification process as a Shi'ite attempt to bar them from returning to power.
Iraq's Sunni-backed Iraqiya faction on November 12, 2010 said it would stay with efforts to produce a national unity government in the country.
A political crisis erupted in December 2011 when the prime minister ordered the arrest of Iraq's Sunni vice president on charges of running a death squad and asked parliament to fire a Sunni deputy prime minister who described Maliki as a dictator. Vice President Tareq al-Hashemi and Deputy Prime Minister Saleh al-Multak both are Iraqiya members. Hashemi denied wrongdoing and fled to northern Iraq's autonomous Kurdish region to avoid detention. Iraqiya responded to Maliki's moves by boycotting parliament and the Cabinet and accusing him of trying to centralize power in the hands of the National Alliance, Iraq's main Shi'ite bloc.
The Iraqi political alliance backed by many Sunnis said January 28, 2012 it would end a month-long boycott of parliament, easing a political crisis that has exposed deep sectarian divisions in Iraq's national unity government. Iraqiya spokeswoman Maysoon al-Damluji said the alliance's lawmakers will resume attendance of parliamentary sessions this week for the first time since mid-December to improve the atmosphere for a proposed national conference on resolving the crisis. Iraqiya's announcement followed a meeting of its senior leaders including parliament speaker Osama al-Nujaifi, Finance Minister Rafie al-Essawi, and Deputy Prime Minister Saleh al-Mutlaq. Iraqiya says it has not decided whether to end a separate boycott of Cabinet meetings chaired by Iraq's Shi'ite Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki.
2014 - National Coalition (Wataniyya)
Iyad ALLAWI is the leader of the Iraqi National Accord, or Wifaq party. Wifaq ran as part of the Iraqi National Movement (al-Iraqiya) in 2010, and as part of the National Coalition (Wataniyya) in 2014. Following the fragmentation of the Iraqiya bloc, which won the most votes in the 2010 election but was unable to form a government, allowing Prime Minister Nuri Al-Maliki to win a second term in office, Allawi formed the new Wataniya bloc to contest the forthcoming elections. The Wataniya bloc includes Arab, Kurdish, Turkmen, Sunni, Shi’ite, Christian, Sabian and Yazidi candidates.
The Al-Wataniya Faction led by Ayad Allawi announced on 09 May 2014, the establishment of a coordinating committee including Sadrist leader Muqtada Sadr, Supreme Islamic Council of Iraq leader Ammar Hakim, Kurdistan Regional Government Massud Barzani and Ayad Allawi focused on forming the future government in this country. Intisar Allawi, a member of the al-Wataniya Faction said, “Talks on the phase after the elections are taking place under the efforts of the al-Wataniya Faction to ally with other factions, and this is a national project far from distancing and marginalizing others, or political sectarianism”.
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