Ayad Allawi was born in 1945 in Baghdad. Dr. Ayad Allawi graduated from Baghdad University from the Faculty of Medicine, and he obtained a master's of science in medicine from London University in 1976 and a doctorate in medicine from the same university in 1979. Dr. Allawi is a neurologist and businessman who began his opposition to the former regime in 1971 when he moved to Beirut. He left Beirut in 1972 to begin his studies in the U.K. He has been a consultant to the United Nations Development Program, the World Health Organization, and the United Nations Children's Fund. After surviving the brutal attack and assassination attempt ordered by Saddam Hussein, Dr. Allawi continued his efforts against the regime and co-founded the Iraqi National Accord, which attempted a failed 1996 coup against Saddam.
He was an Iraqi Governing Council member and chaired its security committee. The initial Iraqi Governing Council was charged with creating stabilization within the nation of Iraq to facilitate reconstruction and democratization. This council clearly lacked the authority to fulfill such expectations of a country severely oppressed for nearly three decades and the Coalition Provisional Authority failed to consider some of the mistakes made since the British occupation in 1921.
The Iraq Interim Government of 2004 was created by the US led coalition as a caretaker government to govern Iraq until elections can be conducted, presumably in or around January, 2005. It took the place of the Coalition Provisional Authority on June 28, 2004. It is recognized by the U.S. and several other countries as being the sovereign government of Iraq. The new government's political leader was Prime Minister Ayad Allawi and his deputy is Baram Salih. The head of state was President Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer. They were all sworn in at a second and more public ceremony on June 28, 2004, shortly after the small private one at which Paul Bremer, the Coalition Provisional Authority's administrator, formally gave chief justice Midhat Mahmoud the legal documents instituting the hand-over. Until a permanent constitution was written, the new government operated under the Law of Administration for the State of Iraq for the Transitional Period, their transitional constitution.
The Iraqi Interim Government, led by Prime Minister Ayad Allawi, assumed sovereign authority over Iraq and the Coalition Provisional Authority has dissolved. Mr. Allawi's government faced enormous challenges, particularly in restoring stability and security and leading the nation to elections scheduled for January 2005. More than 8.5 million Iraqis defied threats of violence and terrorist attacks to cast their ballots January 30 in the country's first open, multiparty democratic elections in more than half a century. Voter turnout was slightly above 58 percent. The United Iraqi Alliance, headed by Abdul Aziz Hakim, received the largest share of the vote, winning 48.2 percent of the ballots cast. The Kurdistan Alliance had the second largest delegation to the Assembly, having won 25.7 percent of the vote. The Iraqi List, led by current Prime Minister Ayad Allawi, came in third with 13.8 percent of the vote.
The closely contested nature of the March 2010 elections left uncertain the future composition of the Government of Iraq (GOI). None of the political blocs won the 163 seats needed to form a government; negotiations to construct a ruling coalition continue. Former Prime Minister Ayad Allawi's al-Iraqiya alliance won the most seats (91) on a nationalist platform that attracted Shia and Sunni supporters but was not sufficient to form a government. On June 10, the second and third place finishers - Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki's State of Law Coalition (89 seats) and the Iraqi National Alliance (70 seats) announced their intent to ally, but they took until November 2010 to agree on who should be prime minister.
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