Iran Air Defense History
Although the furthest or earliest sign of air defense in Iran, there are anti-aircraft shells in the Army's Army, equipped with 57mm cannons built by the Boffors Plant. But in fact, in the year 1297 (1921), after the advent of the plane with firepower and a sense of danger from the sky in the Great War, the idea of air defense in Iran was also created. The General Order of the Army (General Command of the Army), the score of 1825, Article 1, is the first reason, indicating that in 1312 (1936) there were at least two units called the "anti-aircraft unit" in the Iranian Army, equipped with a 75 mm gun of the Swedish Boffors Factory.
An overview of the structure of organizational structure of the ground forces of the Army based in Tehran in the year 1312 shows that the independent type of field artillery was organized alongside the 1st and 2nd units of the center, and in addition to the 2 artillery regiments of 105 meters, Anti-aircraft. The next anti-aircraft units were formed in 1315  in Khuzestan 6th Division in early spring of 1316  in Northwest Division 4 and in the summer of 1316  in the 9th Division.
In the dimension of the training of anti-aircraft units at that time, the first student was Taqi Khan Riahi, who, after a three-year mathematical course and a two-year course at the French Academy of Sciences, and seeing a two-year practical course in French anti-aircraft units, on 6 October 1313 , with the rank of second Lieutenant, served on the abovementioned shells. On 7/2/1314 , four students were also sent to Germany to train anti-aircraft guns, so education abroad began to expand for this class.
The first commander of the anti-aircraft tanker (Major) Ibrahim Khan Arfa (later headquarters and commander of the 2nd Center, was part of the delegation to the Allied Front in Egypt (13/10/1/1321 - 1945). The first unit in Tehran and was formed in the 6th Division of Khuzestan, on December 19, 1315 , and on January 1/1/1316  in Northwest Division 4.
In 1317 , each one of the 1st and 2nd units of an anti-aircraft center was assigned and the development of anti-aircraft fires continued. In the year 1320 , the anti-aircraft organization was formed in the form of a regiment and consisted of anti-aircraft battalions, one of them an anti-aircraft watch battalion, and an independent battalion, including four anti-aircraft machine guns.
With the outbreak of World War II in Iran (September 3, 1320 - 1944), the bombing of Tehran and several other cities began. Based on the statement issued by the army headquarters, a Soviet invader aircraft in the Tabriz area was overthrown by anti-aircraft gunfire. In the meantime, attempts were made to train people for passive defense.
After the arrival of the Allies in Iran, anti-aircraft units were weakened and the anti-air boats of the Boffor were removed from the operational category in 1322 . In 1333 , anti-aircraft units were joined with the Army and joined the Air Force and equipped with 40mm anti-aircraft guns, but after about 2 years, these units re-entered the ground forces and after a while changes in the organization were arranged by an army anti-aircraft artillery formation consisting of three anti-aircraft battalions.
In 1336 , a number of Army Anti-Air Artillery Army officers, renamed the Independent Air Defense Artillery Brigade, were sent to serve in the United States for training, while the Anti-Aircraft Artillery School was in the Army and the Anti-Aircraft Committee at the Artillery Center. The 40-mm guns were later removed from the operational category and all anti-aircraft units were dismantled and their personnel were transferred to desert artillery. At the time of the Vietnam War, the re-establishment of anti-aircraft units in the Army was considered, and by using the 23 mm and the 57mm Russian anti-aircraft element was re-launched on the ground, and later the ballistic missiles with the Shimla radar were also used to a small extent, with no major change other than the increase in the number of anti-aircraft units in the ground forces.
In the year 1336 , a number of technical aircraft were deployed to England for radar training, and the creation of an air defense organization was provided to the Army Air Force. In 1337 , the Radar School was formed at the Air Forces Training Unit, and expatriate expatriate officers traveled to the newly recruited staff after returning. In 1337, a radar system was installed at Dashanattah airport, which, while exploiting it in training, as the first radar system of the country, was in charge of air surveillance and provided Tehran's radar coverage at daylight hours, and in the remaining hours of the day, it kept silent.
In September 1338 , the Air Defense Training and Support Unit was formed with the combination of the radar school and the existing radar equipment and the nationality of the Air Force Education Brigade. After a while, it became an independent air defense training and support brigade of the Nationality of the Air Force Training Brigade, a direct element of the air force commander.
In 1339 , the organization was developed and renamed the Seventy Independent Air Defense Brigade. The brigade consisted of a headquarters, radar academy, anti-aircraft weapons and two radar stations under construction in Tabriz and Babolsar, both of which were completed between 1340 and 1342 [1964-66].
In September 1963, the "Seventy Independent Airborne Brigade" was renamed "Air Defense Command", and its field of development was further enhanced by the presence of Major General and General Staff. In 1345 , the Air Defense Command was equipped with ground-to-air missiles and twenty-two anti-aircraft missiles, and all air defense weapons were integrated into a ground-based air defense artillery group. In the same year, the purchase of the Hawk missile system from the United States was considered that the agreement was later abolished. At the beginning of the move to replace Persian words with foreign words, especially in the army, in early April 1348 , the Air Defense Command was renamed the Air Defense Command.
The Air Defense Command had a headquarters and two major parts. One part was radar stations, which were nationally controlled directly under the command of the air defenses, and a part of the ground-air defense units, which themselves formed a group called the Air Defense Forces Group, which had a headquarters He was in the possession of the Air Defense Command.
In the year 1350 , the Ground-to-Air Defense Forces Group reached 14 battalions and 20 radar stations, some of which had institutional approval but were not formed. The ground-to-air defense battalion's mission was to provide ground-level low-level air defense and radar stations. In the same year, the Air Defense Command Command and Control Center was established in 1350 , including an Air Defense Operation Center, two Regional Operations Centers, and six Monitoring and Reporting Centers.
In December 1350, the Orléan-based air defense system was launched, whose fire was used by the radar system-computer control and control. The guns were made by the Orleikén factory and the radar constructing the Contraeves Switzerland plant, and in its own way were the most advanced ground-to-air defense systems.
In the same year of 1350 (1974), the launch of the Electronic Information and Identification Command (FASHA) with the initial core of the Aibex project (Maral or Boehringer), under the name of "bat", began under the supervision of the Air Force's former operational information and its very limited facilities. The Fasha's initial facilities include 17 employees and devices such as 228 ALQ to track radar signals and RACAL and COLLINS to intercept communication signals in a mobile van in the current Swallow's nest. The system began to collect information at the same quality on the detection aircraft and on the borderline of the country, and the first ground station for collecting signal data was established and operational at the end of 1350 at Mount Nakhjir Peak (West Ilam).
Between 1971 and 1975, there were actions to develop and complete projects including two identifiable aircrafts and five mobile platforms equipped with electronic information devices. In this connection, contracts were signed with various American companies to implement a wide project using advanced electronic systems under the name of the project "IBEX" was signed.
During the years 1350 to 1387, taking into account geopolitical considerations and land registration of information gathering stations in the western, southern, north and east parts of the country, aerial collection stations were also established, as well as the centers of processing Hamedan, Shiraz and the Center for the collection and processing of aerial information on a frequent basis. And set up the grid. And served with the help of well-trained and knowledgeable staff.
Given the current state of affairs and the progress of the industry, with the attitude to domestic capabilities and technology, self-confidence and capability of the unit took significant steps to build and purchase the required systems and some of these systems have been set up and operational at new locations. Of course Fasha's performance in the sacred defense reflected organizational existential values with transcendental goals and elaborate staff in aligning with the country's major goals in security and preservation of achievements that for many years in the minds of every Iranian Muslim or any Iranian Muslim as the point of his identity will remain.
Following up on the history of identity protection, in April 1353, the British Rapid Rocket System was added to the air defense capabilities of the Air Defense Command, and notably that the system was commissioned by the United States, which is itself a mass producer of missile systems, and so on.
With the development of the Air Defense Command, ground airborne groups have been organized in eight areas including Tehran, Isfahan, Ahvaz, Dezful, Omidieh, Bushehr, Bandar Abbas and Chahbahar. In Tabriz, Hamedan, Shiraz, East of Iran, Mashhad and Shahr Abad on the surface of the battalion Were preserved. These groups and groups were under the command of the "Earth-to-Air Defense Commander", which was itself the commander of the air defense.
In the next revision, the country was divided into four air defense zones, and commanders from the four areas were directly under the command of the air defense command. Air defense groups consisted of a radar station (except in exceptional cases where the group lacked a radar station), Hug missile battalions, Rapier missiles, and Orleiken groundwater defense guns and 23mm guns; with different combinations under the command of the areas of defense . At that time, the number of air defense groups reached 21.
After the victory of the Islamic Revolution, the commanders of the air defense zones of the Organization were eliminated and air defense groups were directly controlled nationally. At that time, various radars were installed at high altitudes throughout the country and provided relative radar coverage, and a significant number of radars were organized in the "tactical radar" group for deployment to areas of possible conflict and presence on the battlefield.
With the triumph of the Islamic Revolution, the use of flying radars (AWACS) and the formation of a command and control network with computer systems were stopped. They entered the war with the latest organization, and some of the organized units were operational during the war. Establishing a command and control network and building a warning network and rocket launchers, and adding new radar, missile, and surveillance systems, and covering relative radar across the country at various altitudes, including actions taken during the war and after its completion From the experiences of the eight years of holy defense, the S-200 and the FM 80 air defense systems were added.
In the 1980s and early 1990s, the Islamic Republic of Iran's Air Defense Forces was gradually enlarged. In the aftermath of training, in order to meet the needs of well-educated and trained staff in various fields of expertise, came the establishment of the University of Aviation and the adoption of the Commander-in-Chief and the Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution. The University of Aviation was officially opened on Aug. 15, 1367  by the Supreme Leader (President of the Times). The College of Aeronautical Command and Aircraft Engineering (UCI) required air defense expertise (BSc in Aeronautical Command and Control including hunting control, missile operations, operational information) and other fields of study that students need to train.
Given the change in the battle strategy in the late 1990s and the importance of air battles, as well as the increase in the volume of threats against the holy sanctuary, it was decided to prioritize air defense against the command of the Supreme Allied Commander under the command of the Air Defense Commands. With the mission of defending Air and space in front of any air threats and using all the capabilities of the air defense of the armed forces on September 10, 1387 , with a different structure organized and strengthened. Later this day was recognized as the day of air defense. Of course, it should be known that before this, based on the measures taken by the Commander-in-Chief Supreme Leader in 1992, the air defense base of Khatam Al Anbia (PBUH) was responsible for co-ordinating the activities of the Army and Navy Air Defense.
The Khatam-ol-Anbia air defense base, which, in the previous organizational structure, guided and operationalized the units of the air defense forces of the armed forces, was in the new organizational structure, with the full delivery of the Air Force air defense units and the full command of the units, given command of the command Information and Identification, radar network, missile, airborne and radar networks. Combat and general support support of these units through the Air Defense Command and Control System (ADOC-SOC -CRC-CP ) was responsible for controlling the air operations of the country, and all armament and air defense units of the Army. The former units acted under the operational command of the air defense air defense base.
Flight 752, a Ukraine International Airlines plane, was struck by two missiles and crashed shortly after taking off from Tehran's main airport on 08 January 2020, at a time of heightened US-Iranian tensions. Iran admitted several days later that its forces accidentally shot down the Kyiv-bound plane, killing all 176 people on board.
Iran has said the misalignment of an air defence unit's radar system was the key "human error" that led to the accidental downing of a Ukrainian passenger plane in January 2020. "A failure occurred due to a human error in following the procedure" for aligning the radar, causing a "107-degree error" in the system, the Iranian Civil Aviation Organisation (CAO) said in a report on 11 July 2020. This error "initiated a hazard chain" that saw further errors committed in the minutes before the plane was shot down, said the CAO document, presented as a "factual report" and not as the final report on the accident investigation. The report also noted that the first of the two missiles launched at the aircraft was fired by a defence unit operator who had acted "without receiving any response from the Coordination Centre" on which he depended. The second missile was fired 30 seconds later, "by observing the continuity of trajectory of the detected target", the report added.
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