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Indonesia Marine Corps - History

Born from the desire of youthful patriotism to throw off the shackles of colonialism, the Marine Corps has existed since the Independence War. After the the proclamation of August 17, 1945 of the Independence of Indonesia, there echoed on 22 August 1945 the formation of the Committee for the preparation of three bodies i.e. the National Committee for Indonesia, Indonesia's National Party and the Helper Agency for the families of the victims of war (BPKKP). In this environment, BPKKP formed a security agency named Agency of the People's Security (BKR). For the implementation of tasks of security and order in the beach, the sea and harbour areas established BKR Sea, which was founded on 10 September 1945.

On October 5, 1945, the President issued a notice about the establishment of the Security of the People in which BKR became the core of TKR. This turned BKR Sea into TKR Sea. TKR then evolved into the army of the Republic of Indonesia (TRI).

On November 15th, 1945 stated in Base IV ALRI Tegal under the name Corps Mariniers (this date is then used as the day of birth of the Marine Corps). Next, the existence of the Corps Command was established in the ranks of the Navy upon the basis of Decree Defense Minister No. A /565/1948 on 9 October 1948.

The Corps Command of the Navy (KKO) returned to using the names of the Marine Corps in accordance with Navy Chief of staff Decree No. Skep/1831/XI/1975, dated 15 November 1975. In the field of organisation, the last change took place in 2004 in which formed the new power in the lineup with the formation of the Marine Corps i.e. Pasmar-II and Brigif-3 Marines.

Kormar has been active in various military operations in Indonesia. One of the biggest amphibious military operations was Operation Jayawijaya in which thousands of marines will be landed in West Irian in the early 1960s as a part of the Trikora campaign to free West Irian from Dutch occupation. A combination of Indonesian political and military pressure and international efforts led to an October 1962 Dutch transfer of sovereignty to the United Nations (UN) Temporary Executive Authority, which was supported by a military observer force that oversaw the cease-fire. In May 1963, full administrative control was handed over to Indonesia.

By 1963 an aggressive, expansionist regime was in power in Jakarta. Its foreign policy included a geo-political vision of a unified island nation which included both the Philippine islands and the former British colonial territories of Malaysia. A crisis began on Borneo with the Brunei Revolt on 08 December 1962. In December 1963, the Indonesians raided across theborder in two areas, attacking Malaysian positions and inflictingheavy casualties. One raid attacked the western end of Sarawak while the other attacked Sabah at Kalabakan. When security forces ran down the raiding party, they found them to be Indonesian marines. Significant national interests were not threatened until 17 August 1964 when Indonesian marines attacked the Johore coast of Malaysia, signaling an active, external threat to British regional interests.

Events in Borneo reflect the ambiguity of international intercourse. Critical national interests were at stake; however, a costly conventional war was not in Britain's interest. Britain's political leaders controlled the low visibility, cross border operations called CLARET. Tactically CLARET seized the initiative in Borneo. Operationally CLARET forced Indonesia on the defensive. Strategically CLARET convinced Indonesia thatthe U.K. possessed both the power and the will to pursue its interests. Conflict termination was achieved on 25 May 1966. Resolution of the conflict followed on 11 August 1966.

The Singaporean-Indonesian relationship was for many years prickly at best. Both sides suffered from superiority-inferiority complexes. Indonesia perceived Singapore as a small Chinese island state which thought itself too smart by half and which siphoned off trade and financial services which should have come to Indonesia. The history of the 1963-1965 confrontasi, the undeclared virtual war between Indonesia and Singapore during the Sukarno era, still reverberated. Kormar was involved in the Dwikora campaign where their two best personnel - Usman and Harun - successfully exploded a hotel in center of Singapore. A major shock to the Singapore-Indonesian relationship was the Singaporean execution of the two Indonesian marines who had been arrested in Singapore during confrontasi and had been in jail for years. Suharto made a personal appeal for clemency to PM Lee Kuan Yew to no avail. Working things out "the Asian way" failed. A great loss of face for Suharto. It was never forgotten.

Kormar become the first Indonesian troops that landed in East Timor during operation Seroja and battled there with other forces.

On 26 December 2004, shifting tectonic plates in the Indian Ocean caused anearthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter scale. Within minutes, waves of up to 12 meters hit coastal communities along the west coast of northern Sumatra. Some 4 per cent of the population of Aceh province was killed in the tsunami. Depending on the proximity to the capital and the scale of the destruction, it took aid workers between one day (for Banda Aceh) and ten days (for Krueng Sabee) to reach the affected communities. The Indonesian Marines provided immediate response to remote Aceh Jaya district, which was cut off by road, while Special Operationsand TNI (Indonesian Army) reached Banda Aceh by road. The Indonesian Marines were especially effective with their amphibious vehicles. By March 2005, on the ruins of the flattened town of Calang, Indonesian Marines were establishing schools for orphaned and homeless children and were helping local citizens to construct temporary housing. Signs of new growth, both physical and psychological, are beginning to emerge and the always resourceful Acehnese are developing their own plans for reconstituting their communities.

Thirty Indonesian marines embarked aboard USS Harpers Ferry (LSD 49) in the Java Sea 26 July 2005, coming aboard via landing craft, air cushion (LCAC) assigned to Assault Craft Unit (ACU) 5 detachment Western Pacific Alpha. The marines spent the night aboard the amphibious dock landing ship in preparation for beach offload training July 27 on the island of Java. The embark was a scheduled event during the Indonesia phase of exercise Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) 2005. Indonesia, which has taken part in the CARAT series since its inception in 1995, postponed its participation in 2003 and 2004.

U.S. Marines from 3rd Marines Combat Assault Company (CAC) and Indonesian Marines with 3rd Marine Infantry Battalion trained together in the Indonesian hills 22 July 2008. After exchanging tactics on patrolling, the troops set out on a five-kilometer joint patrol exercise at the Marine Camp Baluran Training Center. As part of this year's week-long naval engagement activity (NEA) between the two countries, U.S. Marines taught their Indonesian counterparts satellite patrolling techniques, a tactic used in urban environments, and the Indonesians taught the U.S. forces how they conduct jungle patrols. The key differences between patrol techniques. Jungle patrols usually stay together along a designated route; satellite patrols split up to cover a larger area. The low visibility and difficult terrain in the jungle make it challenging to establish landmarks. As a result, teams had to rely on land navigation. The downside is that a single group presents a perfect target for the hit-and-run tactics often used by guerrillas. With satellite patrols, ambushes are less likely.

On August 8th, 2009 Indonesia's and the US marine corps have agreed to increase cooperation, particularly in efforts to increase their anti-terror capabilities. "We are all aware that the threat of terrorism still exists and has even increased, and therefore, we will continue to cooperate," US Marine Corps Commander General James T Conway told ANTARA News after receiving an "Indonesian Marine Corps Beret" citation. He said the two corps had been improving their capabilities for a long time through various kinds of programs such as education and joint exercises.

On January 2, 2010, for example, the Indonesian Marine Corps deployed 130 personnel from 1st Marine Force's 1 Marine Infantry Battalion in Surabaya for security duties in the Ambalat Block region. The 130 marines from X Ambalat Task Force, led by First Lieutenant Imam Syafi'i, boarded KRI Teluk Lampung-540 in Surabaya that day, to replace IX Ambalat Task Force comprised of personnel from 3 Marine Infantry Battalion, operating on Sebatik Island (Nunukan District, East Kalimantan), near the border with Malaysia.

Indonesian Marines participated with United States Marines in water survival techniques July 2010 in preparation for Rim of the Pacific Exercise (RIMPAC) 2010. RIMPAC is a biennial exercise that tests the interoperability of partner nations. In total there were 14 nations, 32 ships, five submarines, more than 170 aircraft and 20,000 personnel participating. As personnel traveled between various ships and the islands of Hawaii, it was necessary for personnel to complete Shallow Water Egress Training (SWET), which is taught at Marine Corps Base Hawaii.

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