Trimaran KCR Fast Missile Patrol Vessel (FMPV)
One major indigenous program is the Kapal Cepat Rudal (KCR – Fast Missile Boat) program, consisting of three designs, the 40m KCR-40 built by PT Palindo, the 60m KCR-60 built by PT PAL and the 63m Stealth Trimaran KCR built by PT Lundin. Both the KCR 40 and KCR 60 designs carry the Chinese C-705 missile, with Indonesia having discussed with China licensed manufacturing the C-705 for domestic use. A target of 14 KCRs by 2014 and 44 by 2024 to meet the MEF had been set.
The Fast Missile Patrol Vessel (FMPV) employs a modern “Wave Piercing” trimaran design. This allows the vessel to cut-through waves rather than rise up and over them, and the increased beam provides inherent stability. This combination of features reduces both pitching and rolling, creating a stable weapons platform, and enabling the vessel to comfortably and safely maintain higher average speeds in adverse conditions.
The Klewang-class trimaran was designed in partnership with New Zealand based naval architects LOMOcean Design Ltd. over a period of 24 months. The X3K concept draws from the LOMOcean Design’s 24-meter Earthrace (later Ady Gil), holder of the record for the fastest circumnavigation of the globe by a power boat.
The FMPV has “Stealth” design characteristics, and incorporate features that minimise detection by reducing Radar, Infra-Red, Acoustic and Magnetic signatures. Stealth properties are further improved as there are no reverse-angle bow overhangs to reflect radar signals, as seen on conventional hull forms. Weaponry, including missiles and naval guns, and the ships 11 m high-speed RHIB, are discreetly concealed or shaped to meld into the superstructure profile. The wide decks on the 63m OPV Trimaran also make it an ideal platform for carrying a helicopter, which extends the effective patrol range and capabilities of the vessel.
The new 63 meter long vessel is a cutting edge trimaran design that is considered to be the most advanced naval vessel of its type ever built in South East Asia. It incorporates a radical wave piercing hull form for improved seaworthiness and stability, and has been built from full carbon fibre composite materials, utilising the vacuum infusion process and vinylester resin. This method results in a structure that has increased strength, but also offers the benefits of lower operating, maintenance, and lifecycle costs.
In 2009 PT Lundin signed a contract to build a one of the most advanced “stealth” warships for TNI-AL (Indonesian Navy). This was the result of an intensive Research and Development programme conducted by PT Lundin Industry Invest (North Sea Boats) and TNI-AL that commenced in 2007. Construction commenced in early 2010, but due to the advanced design and construction methods, the project has been kept largely confidential until now.
It combines a number of existing advanced technologies into a single, unique platform; a wave-piercer trimaran hull form, constructed exclusively of infused vinylester carbon fibre cored sandwich materials for all structural elements, with external “Stealth” geometry and features intended to reduce detection.
The result of a 24 month research, design and development collaboration with New Zealand naval architects, LOMOcean Design Ltd, the ship represents a significant step forward in the use of advanced warship building technologies in countries outside of Europe and the United States.
Offering stability and shallow draft, the vessel is designed for patrolling the littorals. The hull shape is intended to permit high speeds to be maintained and thus maximize crew operational capability in the short, steep seas characteristic of the coastline around the Indonesian Archipelago. The design borrows elements from previous trimarans from the same designer, including the 24m Earthrace (later Ady Gil), holder of the record for the fastest circumnavigation of the globe by a power boat.
The underwater sections have been optimized for extended range at fast patrol speeds; the length, transverse and longitudinal positions and immersion of each of the three hulls have been carefully tailored for least resistance using both slender body analysis and towing tank testing. Powering and propulsion is courtesty of multiple MAN V12 diesel engines, coupled to MJP 550 water jets, located in both the centre hull and each of the two side hulls for maximum propulsive thrust and manoeuverability.
The use of carbon foam sandwich composites on this scale in naval application is unprecedented outside of Scandinavia and is representative of the current state of the art in both maritime composites structural engineering and production technology.
The structural design was subject to third party approval by Germanischer Lloyd in Hamburg, using design and approval methodologies tailored specifically for the unusual geometry of a large, wave-piercing trimaran. The construction medium offers multiple benefits, including reduced weight (laminated carbon fibre has a density nearly half that of aluminium alloys), reduced maintenance (carbon composites cannot corrode and exhibit extremely high fatigue limits), tailorability of radar cross section (true flat panel geometry can be attained due to no distortion during assembly), extremely high geometrical accuracy (permits as-built hull shape to remain faithful to theoretical optimums), nil magnetic signature, reduced thermal and acoustic signatures etc.
Production engineering methodologies were selected and tailored to the local labour environment, with emphasis placed on the use of advanced manufacturing techniques and a combination of excellent training and robust systems guaranteed to offer high part quality, repeatability and geometrical accuracy. The use of infusion technology in particular offers high level of confidence in the quality and consistency of fiber wet out, high resin to fiber ratios, low void content and excellent bond quality between skins and core as well as at core joints.
Traditionally, achieving high levels of quality in composite construction on a large scale has been problematical without a highly skilled, specialist workforce. The high volume, vacuum infusion systems introduced by North Sea Boats almost completely mitigates such risks and offers high confidence in the integrity of the structures involved. The flat, facetted panel geometry of the ship lends itself well to high volume production systems, minimizing tooling costs. And advances in numerically controlled milling machine technology also create extremely high levels of assembled part accuracy.
Accommodation is provided for a complement of twenty nine (officers and crew) on three internal decks (including bridge and combat control centre), with facilities and equipment also provided for deployment of special forces troops, including an 11m high speed 50 knot RIB, also manufactured and supplied by North Sea Boats.
Over the past 20 – 30 years, catamarans have overtaken monohulls as the preferred design in many marine activities, and now trimaran designs are also becoming more common. Known collectively as multihull designs, they now serve in rolls as warships, commercial vessels, ferries, service and support vessels, fire fighting boats, pleasure boats, and importantly Search and Rescue craft. Modern multihulls have fine bows that slice through waves and reduce pitching, which allows them to maintain higher speeds in rough conditions, and reach an accident scene faster.
By contrast, conventional mono-hulled vessels tend to slam into waves and roll excessively from side to side, and must slow down considerably in heavy weather. This rolling also makes it difficult to launch their onboard rescue boats, and increases the risk of injury when retrieving victims directly from the water. Even after a successful rescue, this rolling can exacerbate injuries to victims who have sustained spinal damage.
A noticeable features of the multihull design, is increased beam. This additional width increases stability, making rescues safer, and gives increase space to take more victims on board. In a ferry disaster this enables more people to be saved, and with a much reduced chance of capsize. This happens on mono-hull vessels when they become overloaded and top-heavy.
Due to their form and lighter displacement, multihulls tend to sit on the water, rather than in the water. This gives them a much shallower draft, and enables them to operate in relatively shallow water. Giving the potential to get closer to stranded vessels, and enter shallow bays and estuaries. This is a significant advantage in situations where harbour infrastructure does not exist, or may have been damaged by tsunami or earthquakes.
Trimarans offer very stable weapons platforms, and can carry various Missile systems; including Type 705 ( up to 8 ), RBS15, Penguin or Exocet, and 40-57mm Naval Guns, or a CIWC (Close In Weapon System). These can be mounted high on the superstructure, giving better range and firing arc. Sensors can also be installed high up without concerns for stability.
It is widely speculated that at least four and possibly eight C-705 anti- ship missiles with a range of 120 kilometers will be fitted in enclosed launchers on the superstructure. Available graphics show a superstructure-mounted director and a small caliber CIWS in a stealthy turret similar to weapons fitted on China’s Type 022 missile catamarans.
The KRI Klewang was launched 31 August 2012. Measuring 63m in overall length, the first unit was named KRI Klewang - after a traditional Indonesian single edged sword. This first ship was to carry a turn-key system delivered by CSOC and CPMIEC China, including rapid fire CIWS, combat control and missile systems. The exact configuration of this system is still classified. The KRI Klewang was to have undergone a series of sea trials throughout October prior to full acceptance by the Indonesian Navy. Completion would take place after launching, and extensive sea trials and tests will commence in October. KRI KLEWANG had been expected to be fully operational 2013.
The KCR Trimaran program received a setback when the KRI Klewang, the first of a four ship order, was extensively gutted in a ship fire on 29 September 2012 at the Banyuwangi naval port, East Java while undergoing maintenance checks by manufacturer PT Lundin. Indonesian Navy Chief Admiral Soeparno however has told the Indonesian media that the Navy is committed to the program and will continue towards fulfilling the four ship orders which would include a replacement for the KRI Klewang. Indonesian media report that each ship costs about Rp 114 billion ($12.5 million), although this is very likely the cost of the ship less combat systems.
|Length Over All||63.0 meter|
|Length of Waterline||61.0 meter|
|Beam Overall||16.0 meter|
|Water Draft||1.2 meter|
|Sprint Speed||30+ knots [35 knots]|
|Range||2000+ nm @ 16kts|
|Fuel Capacity||50,000 litres|
|Trainees / Others||7|
|Klewang||625||North Sea Boats |
Industry Invest, Banyuwangi
|31 Aug 2012||Sep 2012||Stricken|
| North Sea Boats |
PT Lundin Industry
| North Sea Boats |
PT Lundin Industry
| North Sea Boats |
PT Lundin Industry
| North Sea Boats |
PT Lundin Industry
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