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India - Radars

Radar is a detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. The RADAR system generally consists of a transmitter which produces an electromagnetic signal which is radiated into space by an antenna. When this signal strikes any object, it gets reflected or reradiated in many directions. This reflected signal is received by the radar antenna which delivers it to the receiver, where it is processed to determine the geographical statistics of the object. Radar is still most familiar as a military technology. Radar antennas mounted at airports or other ground stations can be used to detect approaching enemy airplanes or missiles, for example.

Radar makes use of an electromagnetic sensor to detect, locate and track objects by making use of radio waves. It was developed initially to track enemy aircrafts during World War II. It works by emanating electromagnetic energy towards the object and the echo received from the target is observed. The objects or targets can be ships, aircraft, vehicles, astronomical bodies or sometimes even birds and insects. Apart from locating the presence as well as the velocity of these objects, radar also helps in determining the size and shape as well. What makes radar a class apart from other detecting devices is its potential to detect faraway objects in any kind of weather condition without affecting its precision.

In India, Electronics and Radar Development Establishment (LRDE) is the laboratory that comes under Defence Research & Development Organisation ( DRDO ) which is responsible for development of radars. This organisation has met success with various radar systems developed by it being inducted in Indian Armed Forces now in large numbers.

Electronics and Radar Development Establishment (LRDE) caters to the development of radar in India. This laboratory comes under the Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO). LRDE has successfully developed several radar systems and has installed them in the Indian Armed Forces. LRDE has partnered with several governments as well as private companies for the production of radars for the Indian Armed Forces. Some of these radars are INDRA (Indian Doppler Radar), RAJENDRA Radar, Central Acquisition Radar (3D-CAR), Swathi Weapon Locating Radar (WLR), Ashwini Radar, Arudhra Radar, and PJT-531 Battle Field Surveillance Radar. These radars have been a boon to the Indian Armed Forces and helped in countering terrorism and infiltration especially in LOC and other borders. Further, it helped in locating the Pakistani artillery positions with the capacity of tracking seven targets at the same time.

This organisation has met success with various radar systems developed by it being inducted in Indian Armed Forces now in large numbers. This is seen as a step ahead for DRDO which aims to make India self-sufficient in various key military technology to reduce our import-dependency on foreign military hardware. LRDE partners with Bharat Electronics Limited and private companies like Astra micro and Datapatterns for production of radars.

By 2011 IAF had contracts for 19 LLTRs (low-level transportable radars), four MPRs and 30 indigenous medium-range Rohini radars. It is also planning a big induction of long-range surveillance radars (LRSRs) and high-power radars (HPRs) to bolster air defence coverage in "hilly terrain" in the hinterland as well as along the borders with China and Pakistan.

The Indian Doppler Radar (INDRA) series of 2D radars were developed by Indias DRDO for the Army and Air Force. The INDRA-I is a is a mobile surveillance radar for low level target detection while the INDRA-II is for ground controlled interception of targets. INDRA-I is a 2D mobile surveillance radar for low level target detection. The radar is housed in two wheeled vehicles. Some of the main features are automated Track While Scan (TWS), integrated IFF and high scan rate for high speed target detection. The radar is produced by Bharat Electronics Limited and inducted into service. The INDRA-I was a landmark project for the DRDO, as it was the first large radar system designed by the organization and produced in number for the defence forces. The Indian Air Force operates thirty INDRA-Is whereas the Indian Army also has several.

INDRA IIINDRA-II is a variant of INDRA radar for ground controlled interception of targets. INDRA II is L Band low-flying detection radar that caters to the vital gap filling role in an air defence environment. It is a transportable and self-contained system with easy mobility and deployment features. The system consists mainly of an Antenna, Transmitter cabin and Display cabin mounted on three separate vehicles. The radar uses pulse compression for detection of low flying aircraft in heavy ground clutter with high range resolution and ECCM capabilities. The radar has been produced by Bharat Electronics Limited and is used by Indian Air Force and Army. Seven INDRA-IIs have been ordered by the Indian Air Force.

RAJENDRA Trool Level RadarRAJENDRA Trool Level Radar is a multifunction electronically scanned phased array Radar which is the heart of Aakash Air Defence System. It is a passive electronically scanned array (PESA) radar and is used to guide Aakash missile to its target. Mounted on a two wheeled vehicle it fulfills multiple radar functions like surveillance, tracking and guidance. It is a multifunction radar, capable of surveillance, tracking and engaging low radar cross section targets. It is the heart of the Akash surface-to-air missile system and is the primary fire control sensor for an Akash battery. It can track 64 targets and engage 4 targets at a single time. Its range extends upto 80 kilometres and at an altitude of 18 km.

ROHINI Central Acquisition Radar (3D-CAR)Central Acquisition Radar (3D-CAR) is a 3D S-Band Radar developed by DRDO for Indian Army and Indian Air Force. Army uses Rohini variant while Air Force uses Revathi variant. It can track targets upto a range more than 180 km and is capable of detecting low-altitude targets, and also supersonic aircraft flying at over Mach 3 speed. The radar features digital receiver, programmable signal processor providing high resolution, accuracy, response and information availability. The radar is packaged on two high mobility TATRA vehicles to meet operational and battlefield mobility requirements.

The Rohini is an operating in S-Band ground based 3D medium range air surveillance radar providing detection and tracking air targets even under hostile EW operational environment. It is capable of handling multiple targets simultaneously and also precisely calculate the height at which projectiles are flying. Mounted on Tatra mobile platform, a heavy duty modified truck built by the public sector Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) and supported by an auxiliary mobile power unit, it enables the Rohini to be easily transported to the battlefront.

Operating in a range of up to 170 kilometers and an altitude of 15 kilometers, the Rohini radar can track multiple targets like fighter jets and missiles travelling at supersonic speeds of over 3,000 kms per hour. The radar employs an array of Electronic Counter Counter Measure (ECCM) features including frequency agility and jammer analysis. A Secondary Surveillance Radar, IFF, is integrated with the primary radar Rohini, which distinguishes friendly and hostile aircraft. About 100 pieces are expected to be built, with around 20 radars being manufactured every year.

Medium Power Radar ArudhraArudhra, a state-of-the-art radar, is being inducted towards strengthening the air defence in the Saurashtra-Kutch region and constitutes an important component in IAF's plan to achieve network-centric operations. Indian air defence surveillance network received a big boost with the Indian Air Force commissioning an Israeli-made medium-power radar (MPR) at Naliya in Gujarat in June 2011. Medium Power Radar Arudhra is a 4D rotating phased array radar. It can automatically detect and track targets ranging from fighter aircrafts to ballistic missiles to slow moving targets. It can either be stable and stare or be rotated for 360 coverage. In rotation mode, the antenna rotates at 7.5 / 15 rpm with surveillance coverage of 360 in azimuth and 30 in elevation. In staring mode of operation the antenna stares in specified azimuth with surveillance coverage of 60 in azimuth and 30 in elevation. Design, development and production of MPRs were categorized as Make category. Buy and Make means buying a portion of demand, obtaining ToT and production in India for remaining demand. Make means developed by DRDO laboratories through indigenous efforts and manufactured by an Indian production agency. Electronics and Radar Development Establishment (LRDE), a Bengaluru-based DRDO establishment, took up the task and developed a fully engineered MPR for the IAF. The system has an instrumented range of 400 Km and is able to detect 2sqm RCS targets as far as 300 Km in range with the altitude coverage from 100 meters to 30 Kms. IAF projected (November 2002) a requirement of 23 MPRs with active phased array radar technology for replacement [between X (2002-07) and XII (2012-17) Five Year Plan] of existing radars (PSM-33 radars, P-40 and TRS-2215 radars), which had completed their service life of 20 years.

Based on Air HQ ORs (November 2004) and due to non-availability of technology, MoD approved (April 2006) import of 15 MPRs by IAF and indigenous development of eight MPRs by LRDE with a delivery schedule of 60 months (April 2011). LRDE submitted (November 2006) a proposal to Air HQ for development of MPR using imported antenna through direct import of MAP antenna from M/s Thales, France at a cost of `97.84crore to meet IAF time frame of 36 months. However, Air HQ insisted (June 2007) LRDE to develop a fully indigenous MPR including its antenna using latest technology.

3D Tactical Control RadarThe 3D Tactical Control Radar is a state-of-the-art medium range surveillance and tracking radar that, while mounted on a mobile platform, effectively plays the role of medium range surveillance radar. The radar operates in the S band and covers 90 km. Is capable of track-scanning (TWS) of air borne targets. 3D Sophisticated Medium Range Surveillance & Trekking Radar. Track-scanning (TWS) of air-borne targets up to 90 km. ECCM Specifications - Side Lob Blanking, Frequency-Vibration and Jammer Analysis. Integrated IFF Merck XI, with Extractor and Coordinated Antennas. Formatted in two TATRA vehicles, one for radar and the other for energy source. Fully automated and controlled with user friendly GUI from radar console. Dedicated and engaging on-line BITE facility. Facility for training controllers, operators and technical members. Facility for automatic transmission of data to the target data receiver (located with weapon system), from radar to 20 km distance, using optical line, wire line and secure VHF radio set. For external networks on LAN - 500 m. Remote control of tracks and plots data. 100 m Facilitate remote control and diagnostic testing on the system.
Reporter Tactical Control RadarReporter Tactical Control Radar is an early warning, alert and signaling system that includes weapon control functions. It has been specially designed for its high degree of mobility and easy transportability, by air or on land. This radar has minimal interference in the actions of both airfield defenders and good air users. The command and control capabilities of the radar, coupled with the ground-based effective airborne defense system, make the operation more and more effective, with safe, adequate and flexible use of the airspace. All weather day and night capability. 40 km range, giving a large coverage. Multiple target handling and engagement capability. Local threat evaluation and engagement calculations assist the commander's decision making process, and give effective local fire distribution. Easy to operate, and hence low manning requirements and stress reduction under severe conditions. Highly mobile system, to be used in all kinds of terrain, with short into and out of action times (deployment/redeployment) Clutter suppression. High resolution, which gives excellent target discrimination and allows accurate tracking.
Bharani Low Level Light-Weight Radar (LLLR)Bharani Low Level Light-Weight Radar (LLLR), is a L-Band,2D, light weight, battery powered and compact sensor which provides 2D surveillance solution to alert Army Air Defence Weapon Systems mainly in mountainous terrain against hostile aerial targets like UAVs, RPVs,hovering helicopters and fixed wing aircraft flying at low and medium altitudes. L-Band 2D Surveillance of aerial targets flying at low and medium altitudes. It provides automatic detection and tracking of: Fixed wing aircraft; Helicopters; UAVs; and detection of hovering Helicopters. Target designation and distribution to Weapon Sites and Command Center, with Integrated IFF. It is easily transportable by men, animal transport, etc. Highly modular for quick setup. Remote operation and radar display through the Commander's Display Unit (CDU). Separation of CDU from sensor head: 750 m.

Aslesha Low Level Light-Weight Radar (LLLR)Aslesha Low Level Light-Weight Radar (LLLR), is a S-Band, 3D, light weight, battery powered and compact sensor which provides 3D surveillance. This radar is with multiple beams and electronic scanning capability in elevation and can be rapidly deployed in various terrains like mountain tops, deserts and even high rise buildings in urban areas to help carryout aerial surveillance at low and medium altitudes. The radar would provide for detection and tracking of all kinds of hostile aerial targets like fighter aircrafts, UAVs and helicopters.

The aerostats are large fabric envelopes filled with helium, and can rise up to an altitude of 15,000 feet (4,600 m) while tethered by a single cable. Aerostats can be operated either in a 360 degree search mode or a sector scan mode. The largest lifts a 1000 kg payload to an operating altitude providing low-level, downward-looking radar coverage. The first aerostats were assigned to the United States Air Force in December 1980 at Cudjoe Key, FL. During the 1980s, the US Customs Service operated a network of aerostats to help counter illegal drug trafficking.

In an attempt to bolster India's air defence capabilities, the Indian Air Force procured two EL/M-2083 long-range aerostat programmable radars from Israel, for the Kutch sector in Gujarat. The capability, another indicator of the rapidly growing Indo-Israel defence relationship, was proposed by the defence ministry in 2002. The aerostat radars, basically include sensors mounted on helium filled large balloons, placed around 10 to 15 thousand feet above the land surface. They are attached to ground with the help of long cables. The projected requirement of 15 to cover the gaps in the air defence ground environment system (ADGES) may need to be revised upwards given the new kinds of threats.

By 2011, India was also looking to procure nine additional aerostat radars to add to the Israeli aerostats inducted earlier. India's first Divya Chakshu indigenously-developed balloon-mounted radar that will greatly enhance the surveillance capabilities of the armed forces was successfully launched in December 2010. The helium-filled aerostat has night vision cameras and sound recorders, weighs around 300 kg, and can be reused. The aerostat can survey areas up to 20 km away and with advanced cameras, its range can go beyond 100 km. Aerostats on the Gujarat coast would be able to keep under surveillance the fishing grounds that are so often the scene of detention of fishing boats that enter Indian waters.

Gujarat has two air force bases -- Jamnagar in Saurashtra region and Bhuj in Kutch, neither of which appears to host an aerostat. Only Punjab and Kutch sectors in India have aerostat units, which became operational in early 2006. One aerostat is deployed at Kanakpar, Gujarat, India [2310'41"N 6906'19"E / 23.1781, 69.1053].

Aerostat - Kanakpar, Gujarat Aerostat - Kanakpar, Gujarat Aerostat - Kanakpar, Gujarat

Swordfish is an Indian Long range tracking radar specifically developed to counter ballistic missile threat. It will be a part of Indias ballistic missile program. First testing of this radar was in March 2009. Main aim of the test was to validate the capabilities of the indigenously developed Swordfish Long Range Tracking Radar (LRTR). The missile to be hit will be fired from a longer distance than it was in the earlier test. DRDO tested whether the radar could track the incoming missile from that distance or not said a member of the project. Swordfish is an acknowledged derivative of the Israeli Green Pine long range radar, which is the critical component of that countrys Arrow missile defence system. However, it differs from the Israeli system as it employs Indian Transmit Receive modules, signal processing, computers and power supplies. It is also more powerful than the base Green Pine system and was developed to meet Indias specific BMD needs. India had acquired and deployed two Green Pine radars around July 2002 and another one in August 2005.

Swathi Weapon Locating Radar Swathi Weapon Locating Radar is a mobile artillery locating phased array radar developed by India. It is a counter-battery radar designed to detect and track incoming artillery and rocket fire to determine the point of origin for Counter-battery fire. It has been developed by DRDOs Bangalore base laboratory, LRDE and the Government owned Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL). It can track 7 targets at a single time and are helpful for Indian Army to locate Pakistani artillery positions across the LOC.

The advent of long range weapon systems and mechanization of land forces have extended the area of operations much beyond the visual range. Deployment of electronic surveillance devices in the battlefield will serve as a force multiplier to enhance the combat potential of our forces and optimize the effectiveness of our weapon systems.

Weapon Locating Radar (WLR) has been primarily designed to locate hostile guns, mortars and rockets causing interference to the progress of our operation. WLR, in its secondary role, can track and observe the fall of shot from own weapons to provide corrections to own fire. A large quantum or artillery deployed on a wide front, coupled with movement of aerial objects, weather and ground clutter, presents a high density returned conflicting signals on the radar screen. These conflicting signals have to be processed in the real time and extract required information for gunners to complete their mission successfully.

Detection, location and tracking of the requisite targets is handled by the advanced algorithms and state-of-the-art hardware. The ability to locate enemy weapons from its round and transmit the data of the required target to the counter fire elements for retaliatory strike before the target is redeployed is the key feature of the radar.

The Radar uses passive phased array with excellent side lobe levels. Radar system mounted on the TATRA vehicle is built to operate in all terrain and weather conditions. WLR, a joint development project undertaken by radar house LRDE (DRDO) and Bharat Electronics, is developed to fulfill the long felt need of the Indian Army.

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Page last modified: 13-09-2021 14:50:25 ZULU