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Mysore Dominions

The Mysore State is situated in Southern India, between 11 40' and 150 N. lat., and between 740 40' and 78 30' E. long., and is surrounded on all sides by British territory. Its total area was 29,444 square miles. The inhabitants were almost exclusively Hindus, who constitute more than 94 per cent, of the whole population. In early times Mysore was the principal seat of the Jains, who left many interesting memorials of their occupation.

The eleventh century began with a powerful invasion of the Cholas from the south, in which the Gangas and the Pallavas were overthrown; but from the ruins of the Ganga empire arose the Hoysalas, who drove out the Cholas from Mysore and established a firm dominion. In the twelfth century the Chalukya power was subverted by the Kalachuryas, in whom the Haihayas reappear; and they, in their turn, were shortly dispossessed on the north by the Yadavas and in the south by the Hoysalas, who also before long subdued the Cholas.

Both Yadavas and Hoysalas were overthrown in the middle of the fourteenth century by the Musalmans. The Vijayanagar empire, however, then arose, which held sway over the whole of South India till the latter half of the sixteenth century, when it was subverted by a confederacy of Musalman powers. Of these, Bijapur secured a great part of Mysore, but was overcome in the seventeenth century by the Mughals, who took possession of the north and east of the country.

The Mahomedan conquest of the Dekhan had not absorbed the whole of the Dekhan peninsula. When the kingdom of Bijanagur was destroyed in 1565, the infant state of Mysore became independent, and by the year 1610 had grown to be the chief Hindu principality south of the Kishtna, with Seringapatam as its capital. India History Map - 1704Since the downfall of Vijayanagar (1565) the chiefs of Mysore extended their power more and more by taking towns, forts, and villages, but remained in some form of subjection, either to the viceroy of Vijayanagar who resided at Seringapatam, or to the Bijapur government, or to the Moghuls. Of the acquisitions of Chick Deo Eaja (1672-1704) no fewer than forty-eight are enumerated. Among these Bangalore is the most important, though its possession seems to have been disputed by the chief of Sira.

The southernmost part of the Moghul Empire consisted then of two subahs, Haidarabad and Bijapur. To these belonged Haidarabad Carnatic and Bijapur Carnatic, which were subdivided into Bala Ghaut and Payeen Ghaut, so as to distinguish the countries above and below the passes.

Haidarabad Carnatic Bala Ghaut comprised: Cumbum, Guti, Gandikot, Sidhaut, Gurramconda.1 Haidarabad Carnatic Payeen Ghaut consisted of the whole country from Guntur to the Coleroon along the Coromandel Coast. This is afterwards known as the province of Arcot.

Bijapur Carnatic seems to have consisted of Bala Ghaut provinces only. The more important districts were Sira, Bangalore, Harpanhalli, Conderpi, Anagundi, Bednor (Nagar), Chitaldrug, and Mysore. The chiefs of most of these districts paid tribute under compulsion only. The districts of Adoni (Udni), Ghazipur (Nandial), and Savanur Bankapur belonged to the province of Bijapur (not Carnatic). The two Carnajtics were governed by Zulfikar Khan till the death of Aurangzib, but they were in an unsettled condition.

In 1731 the Hindu ministers deposed the ruling Raja and assumed the power of state ; but in 1760, Hyder Ali, a Massulman soldier of fortune, who had risen in the Mysore service, grasped the sovereignty and made himself master of the kingdom.

During its infancy the Mysore State had attracted little notice from its Mussalman neighbors; but its rapid progress brought it into conflict with the Nizam, and also with the rising and encroaching power of the Mahrattas. Against these enemies Hyder held his own, but not without some severe defeats. He extended his possessions in the south, and in 1766, he invaded Malabar and took Calicut. The English were now induced to join a confederacy of the Mahrattas and the Nizam against Hyder, and thus became involved in the first Mysore war. Hyder was however equal to the occasion and he induced the Nizam to renounce the English alliance and to join him. During this war (1767-69), Hyder twice invaded the Carnatic, and eventually obtained a treaty of peace under the walls of Madras.

In 1780 Mysore, the government of which had, since 1760, been usurped by Haider/Haidar Ali Khan, may be said to have reached its largest extent. Haidar's territory extended northwards to the river Kistna, westwards to the Arabian Sea, southwards to Dindigul, and eastwards, for the most part, to the edge of the eastern Ghauts. His tributary chiefs were the polygars of Harpanhalli, Kanakgiri, Raiding, and Anagundi, and the raja of Cochin.

The state had always been under Hindu rulers, except during the short interval caused by the usurpation of power during the 18th century by Haidar Ali and his son, Tipu Sultan. In dealing with the territories of Tipu, Wellesley acted with moderation. The central portion, forming the old State of Mysore, was restored to an infant representative of the Hindu Rajas, whom Haidar Ali had dethroned; the rest of Tipu's dominions was partitioned between the Nizam, the Marathas, and the English. At about the same time, the Karnatik, or the part of South-eastern India ruled by the Nawab of Arcot, and also the principality of Tanjore, were placed under direct British administration, thus constituting the Madras Presidency almost as it existed later. The sons of the slain Tipu were treated by Lord Wellesley with paternal tenderness. They received a magnificent allowance, with semi-royal establishment, first at Vellore, and afterwards in Calcutta.

On the capture of Seringapatam by the British and the downfall of Tipu Sultan in 1799, the country included within the present limits was granted to the representative of the Hindu Rajas. In 1832 it was placed under British Commissioners, but restored to native rule in 1881.

After the death of Tipu Sultan, at the capture of Seringapatam in 1799, the English restored a representative of the ancient line in the person of Krishna Raj, son of Chama Raj of Arakotara. His subsequent misrule, when admitted to power on attaining his majority, led to the resumption of the administrative control of the province by the British government in the year 1831. The government, however, continued to be carried on in the name of the native prince, and at his death an adopted son was recognised as successor. This chief, since dead, was duly installed on coming of age in 1881. The British chief commissioner thereupon handed over office to the native diwan, and a political resident was appointed to represent British interests.

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