Maharashtra - People
Maharashtra is not just a geographical expression but an entity built on collective efforts of its people. Varied customs and traditions co-exist peacefully in Maharashtra. The State is well known throughout the country for its rich music and dances. Povadas, Bharuds, Gondhals and Lavnis are the major forms of folk music in the State and represent the best that the Maharashtrian society has contributed in the field of music. Maharashtra celebrates all major religious festivals in a peaceful and harmonious manner. As such the State has played a significant role in the social and political sphere of the nation.
As Maharashtra is a vast state, the people of this colourful state wears different types of costumes, take different cuisines, has different forms of dances and music according to the physical features of their locality. Generally, men wear dhoti and pheta in olden days, while women wear choli and saree. But with the change of time, young Maharashtrians too are fast attracting to the latest fashions imported from the western countries.
With a population of 11.24 crore, as per Population Census 2011 and with geographical area of about 3.08 lakh sq. km, the State ranks 2nd by population and 3rd in terms of geographical area. The State is highly urbanised with 45.2 per cent population living in towns.
As per the Population Census 2011, population of Maharashtra is 11.24 crore, which is 9.3 per cent of the All-India population. The State is second largest populous state in India after Uttar Pradesh. The State has a density of population 365 per sq. km. which is below All-India average of 382 per sq. km. The State stands fifth and sixth in proportion of urban population and literacy respectively.
Going by the 2001 census figures, 57% of the total population in Maharashtra belonged to the rural category. Population trends for the period 1991-2011 reveal a steady decadal increase but at a decreasing rate – the annual growth rate during 2001-11 is 1.6% compared to that of 2.3% during 1991-01 as per the 2011 census estimates. The population density showed an increase from 315 persons/km2 in 2001 to 365 persons/km2 in 2011; the corresponding national average is 382 persons/km2. However, Mumbai (Suburban) and Mumbai districts have population density in excess of 20,000 persons/km2, whereas in three districts – Thane (1175), Pune (603) and Kolhapur (504) – the density is more than 500. On the other hand, four districts – Gadchiroli (74), Sindhudurg (163), Chandrapur (192) and Ratnagiri (196) – had population density less than the State average. The State registered one of the largest in-migration figures of the country with an addition of around 4 lakh people every year during 1991-2001.
As per the Population Census 2011, proportion of urban population of the State is 45 per cent and that of All-India is 31 percent. Urban population has grown rapidly in all regions of the State over the period of last two decades. However, the rate of growth had slowed down in 2001-11 as compared to 1991-2001. Konkan region has the largest share in urban population.
According to the Planning Commission of India, Maharashtra had 30.7% population living below the poverty line as on 2005. The State ranks 6th in terms of social and economic infrastructure, which is higher than the country average. Among the Indian states, it ranks 4th in terms of the HDI, which takes into account factors of literacy (77%), life expectancy at birth (65.5 years), infant mortality rate (48 per 1000 births) and maternal mortality rate (13.5 per million births) (HDR, 2003)3. According to the 2011 census, literacy rate for the State stands at 83% - although there is wide disparity by gender (male-90; female-75) - which is above the national average of 74%.
Literacy and level of education are basic indicators of social development. The literacy rate of the State has steadily increased from 35.1 per cent in 1961 to 82.3 per cent in 2011 while it has increased from 28.3 per cent in 1961 to 73 per cent in 2011 at All-India level. The proportion of population with education level as ‘Primary’, ‘Matric/Secondary’ and ‘Graduate & above’ is 17 per cent, 14 per cent & nine per cent respectively.
As per the Population Census 2011, the sex ratio in the State is 929 and that at All-India level is 943. Sex ratio has improved at State and All-India level during the last decade. Of all districts in the State, only two districts viz. Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg have sex ratio higher than 1000, twelve districts between 950 to 1000, 18 districts between 900 to 950 and three districts viz. Thane, Mumbai Suburban and Mumbai City have sex ratio below 900. The child sex ratio of the State has decreased from 946 in 1991 to 894 in 2011. As per the Population Census 2011, the child sex ratio in Arunachal Pradesh was highest (972).
Marital status and Female mean age at marriage are essential constituents to monitor fertility and population growth. As per SRS report 2016, never married, married and widowed/divorced/separated population in the State is 48.2 per cent, 47.9 per cent and 3.8 per cent respectively. The percentage of females who got effectively married before reaching 18 years of age, between 18-20 years of age and at age 21 years & above in the State is 2.4, 36.5 and 61.1 respectively. Women’s mean age at effective marriage has increased from 19.9 in 2001 to 22.4 in 2016 in the State.
In the State all 34 Districts, 351 Panchayat Samitis and 27,667 Gram Panchayats were declared as Open Defecation Free (ODF) on 18th April, 2018 under Swachh Bharat Mission (Rural). In the State 384 cities were declared as Open Defecation Free on 1st October, 2017 of which 142 cities were ODF.
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