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Islamic Oman and Its Rulers

Historians cannot give specific dates as to when Islam emerged in Oman, but documents indicate that the Prophet Mohammed contacted Oman's leaders in 6th Hegira (AH - from the Islamic calendar). The first Omani called to the Islamic faith was Mazin bin Ghaduba Al-Tay who declared that he had destroyed the idols and '..come before the Messenger and converted to Islam.' Following his revelation, Mazin travelled to the Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) and dedicated himself to the faith of Islam, to obeying its laws and to spreading the word of Islam to the unbelievers. The Arab Islamic Conquest continued from the time of the Prophet's death in 11th century AH for around 100 years. With Oman's strong merchant trading links, it was instrumental in spreading the word to other countries such as Persia.

In the 16th century AD, Oman was invaded by Portuguese troops, who were vying for control of the Gulf and the Indian Ocean. Their occupation lasted around 150 years until they were finally expelled by Sultan bin Saif al-Yarubi in 1650AD, the date which most consider to be the start of Oman's complete independence. The following Ya'aruba Dynasty brought a new-found renaissance to the country and it was during this time that many of the decadent forts and castles were built, some of which are still standing.

In 1718 AD, the Imam, Sultan bin Saif II died and civil war broke out over the election of his successor. This war raged for the next 18 years and two factions emerged: one supporting the leadership of Saif bin Sultan, who was, at the time, a young boy; and the other supporting Muhanna bin Sultan who held the necessary qualities to be an Imam. Muhanna was smuggled into Rustaq Fort where he was thus established as Imam in 1719AD. He was not a popular leader, despite his hard work, and only one year later, Ya'arub bin Bal'arab forced him to concede his leadership and killed him. Ya'arub installed the young Saif bin Sultan as Imam and declared his own role as Saif's custodian. However, he abused his role and Bal'arab bin Nasir took over the welfare of Saif in 1723 AD.

In 1738 AD, a huge battle took place between Persian troops and the Arabian forces in Bahla. The Arabian forces were defeated and Imam Saif escaped to Buraimi where he declared his intention to fight and overthrow the Persians. However, unrest among the people, who now favoured Sultan bin Murshid as new Imam, gave the Persians the opportunity to capture Muscat. On the Persians' attempts to take over Sohar, Ahmad bin Said, the deputy of the town, overthrew them and drove them from Oman.

Oman's Rulers

Pre-Islam

-Abd Izz bin Ma'awalah bin Shams
-Hunna'ah bin Malik bin Fahm
-Malik bin Fahm Dus bin Adnan bin Abdullah bin Zaharan bin Ka"ab bin Harith bin Abdullah bin Nasr bin Al-Azd

IMAMS OF THE 1st CENTURY (HIJRA) 7th Century AD

-Mohammed bin janah Al-Hinai
-Janah bin Abbad bin Qais bin Amer Al-Hinai
-Ziyad bin Al-Muhalb
-Suleiman and Said, (sons of Abbad bin Abd bin Al-Jalandi)
-Abbad bin Abd Al-Julanda
-Jaifar and Abd, sons of AI-Julanda bin Al Mustakbir

IMAMS OF THE 2nd CENTURY (HIJRA) 8th Century AD

-Ghassan bin Abdullah AI-Kharusi
-Al-Wairth bin Ka'ab Al-Kharusi
-Mohammed bin Abi Affan bin Al-Yahmad
-AI-Julanda bin Mas'ood bin Jaifar bin Al-Julanda bin Bani AI Julanda bin Ma'awalah lbn Shams

IMAMS OF THE 3rd CENTURY (HIJRA) 9th Century AD

-AI-Hakm bin Al-Milaa Al-Bahri-(who settled in Su'al, near Nizwa)
-Mohammed bin Yazid Al-Kindi - (who settled in Nizwa)
-Omar bin Mohammed bin Matraf
-Al-Hawari bin Matraf Al-Hadani (who settled in Nizwa)
-Al-Husn bin Said Al-Sahtani - (who settled in Nizwa but who was originally from Bani Kharus)
-Al-Salt bin Qasim Al-Kharusi
-Abdullah bin Mohammed Al-Hadani, known as Abi Said Al-Qurmati
-Azzan bin AI-Hazbar Al-Maliki (from Kalb Al-Yahmad)
-Al-Salt bin Al-Qasim Al-Kharusi (from the people of Nizwa)
-Mohammed bin Al-Hassan Al-Kharusi(from the Fasheh family of Rustaq)
-Azzan bin Tamim Al-Kharusi
-Rashid bin Al-Nadhar Al-Yahmadi Al- Kharusi
-Al-Salt bin Malik Al- Kharusi
-Al-Muhanna bin Jaifar AI-Yahmadi Al-Kharusi
-Abdulmalik bin Humaid (from Beni Ali bin Sawda)

IMAMS OF THE 4th CENTURY (HIJRA) 10th Century AD

-Rashid bin Waleed Al-Kindi
-Said bin Abdullah bin Mohammed bin Mahbub Al-Quraishi

IMAMS OF THE 5th CENTURY (HIJRA) 11th Century AD

-Al-Khalil bin Abdullah bin Omar bin Mohammed bin Al-Imam Al-Khalil bin Shadhan Al-Kharusi
-Amir bin Rashid bin Al-Wald Al- Kharusi
-Rashid bin Ali Al- Kharusi
-Hafs bin Rashid bin Said
-Rashid bin Said Al- Yahmadi
-Al-Khalil bin Shadhan bin Al-Salt bin Malik Al-Kharusi

MAMS OF THE 6th CENTURY (HIJRA) 12th Century AD

-Mohammed bin Khanbash bin Mohammed
-Khanbash bin Mohammed bin Hisham
-Moosa bin Abi Al- Ma'aly bin Moosa bin Nejad
-Mohammed bin Abi Ghasan Al-Kharusi(of the people of Manah)

Kings of Oman From the 7th to the 9th Centuries(Hijra)13th & 14th Centruries AD

-Suleiman bin Suleiman bin Mudhafar AI Nabhani
-Husam bin Suleiman bin Mudhafar
-Suleiman bin Mudhafar bin Suleiman
-Mudhafar bin Suleiman bin Mudhafar
-Abu Mohammed bin Nabhan
-Kahlan bin Omar bin Nabhan
-Omar bin Nabhan
-Abu Al-Ma'ali Kahlan bin Nabhan
-Abu Mohammed Nabhan bin Dhuhl
-Abu Abdullah Mohammed bin Ahmed bin Omar
-Abu Al-Ma'ali Kahlan bin Mohammed
-Abu Abdullah Mohammed bin Omar
-Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin Abi Omar bin Mu'amar bin Mohammed bin Amr bin Nabhan
-Abu Al-Arab Yarib bin Omar
-Abu Hassan Dhahal bin Omar
-Abu Al-Qasim bin Omar bin Mohammed bin Amr bin Nabhan
-Abu Mohammed Nabhan bin Omar bin Nabhan
-Abu Hussain Ahmed bin Omar bin Nabhan
-Abu Abdullah Mohammed bin Omar bin Nabhan

THE KINGS OF THE NABHAN DYNASTY

-Makhzum bin Falah
-Mudhafar bin Suleiman
-Arar bin Falah
-Suleiman bin Mudhafar
-Mudhafar bin Suleiman
-Falah bin Mushin bin Suleiman (one of the most famour Nabhan Kings)
-Sultan bin Sultan
-Tahmas bin Sultan
-Mudhafar bin Sultan
-Sultan bin Muhsin bin Suleiman bin Nabhan

IMAMS OF THE 9th CENTURY (HIJRA) 15th Century AD

-Abu Hassan bin Abdul-Salam Al- Nazwi
-Ahmed bin Omar bin Mohammed Al-Dhanki
-Omar Al-Sharif
-Mohammed bin Suleiman bin Ahmed
-Omar bin Khatab bin Mohammed bin Ahmed
-Shathan bin Salt bin Malik Al-Kharusi
-Abu Hassan bin Khamis bin Amer
-Malik bin Hawari bin Malik
-Al-Hawari bin Malik

IMAMS OF THE 10th CENTURY (HIJRA) 16th Century AD

-Abdullah bin Mohammed AI Qurn Al Manhi
-Oman bin AI-Qasim
-Barakat bin Mohammed bin Ismail Al Kharusi
-Mohammed bin Ismail bin Abdullah bin Mohammed Al-Haderi AI-Kharusi

IMAMS OF THE 11th CENTURY (HIJRA) 17th Century AD

-Bilarab bin Sultan bin Saif Al-Ya'rubi
-Sultan bin Saif bin Malik Al-Ya'rubi
-Nassir bin Murshid Al-Yar'ubi

IMAMS OF THE 12th CENTURY (HIJRA) 18th Century AD

-Sultan bin Murshid AI-Ya'rubi
-Bilarab bin Himyar Al-Ya'rubi
-Saif bin Sultan bin Saif bin Sultan bin Malik Al-Ya'rubi
-Mohammed bin Nassir bin Amer bin Ramtha bin Khamis Al-Ghafri
-Yarub bin Bilarab bin Sultan bin Saif bin Malik Al-Ya'rubi
-Sultan bin Saif bin Sultan Al Ya'rubi
-Saif bin Sultan Qaid A1-Ardh Al-Ya'rubi



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