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Type 45 Daring destroyer

Program History

Based on the current assessment of the threat, the Equipment Capability Customer identified a requirement for a Class of up to 12 Type 45 Destroyers. However, this assumption can, and will, be subject to continuing critical operational analysis, taking into account up to date intelligence about the future threat. As of 2006 the Type 45 was planned as a class of eight ships. Approval had, so far, only been given for six ships.

In April 1999, the Defence Ministers of the United Kingdom, France and Italy decided not to proceed with the collaborative Common New Generation Frigate program and the UK decided to procure the Type 45 Destroyer as a national solution to the United Kingdom requirement. The Type 45 Destroyer program builds on the Assessment work carried out in Phase 1 of the collaborative HORIZON project, the warship element of the Common New Generation Frigate program.

Following the decision of the three HORIZON partners (France, Italy and the UK) to proceed with PAAMS, but to pursue national warship programs, BAE SYSTEMS was appointed Prime Contractor for the Type 45 in November 1999. PAAMS Assessment is complete and the contract for PAAMS Full Scale Engineering Development and Initial Production was placed in August 1999. Work was underway to achieve Main Gate approval for the warship and to place a contract for Demonstration and First of Class Manufacture by September 2000.

The Type 42 Destroyers were gradually replaced by the new Type 45 Destroyers. The new Type 45 Destroyers were expected to be considerably cheaper to operate and support than the Type 42 Destroyers, the first of which entered service in 1977. The Department estimated in 2000 that, in net total, it will cost an additional 537 million to operate and support the existing Type 42 Destroyers because of the 57 month delay, assuming that the schedule for retiring the Type 42s and commissioning the Type 45s remains as envisaged when the Department was committed to the collaborative Project Horizon program. The greatest cost driver is expenditure on spares due to the age of the Type 42 Destroyers. Annual spares costs for each Type 42 are on average some 12 million compared to an average 4 million expected for the Type 45. Operating costs should also be less when the Type 45 enters service. For example, the complement anticipated for each Type 45 is 72 fewer than that for the Type 42, an annual cost saving of 2.3 million per vessel. The net additional support costs are accompanied by a substantial deferral of acquisition expenditure because of the delay in the planned ship order dates.

On 11 July 2000 Geoff Hoon announced that the Government had approved the construction of the first three Type 45 Anti Air Warfare Destroyers for the Royal Navy, within a planned class of up to 12. A 1 billion order for the construction of the first three ships of the class and long-lead items for up to three further ships with prime contractor BAE SYSTEMS was placed in december 2000. BAE SYSTEMS Electronics is the prime contractor for the Demonstration and First of Class Manufacture contract covering the first three vessels. The vessels will be constructed under sub-contract with two expected to be assembled by BAE SYSTEMS Marine and one by Vosper Thornycroft. At that time a further order, for the construction of the second batch of three ships, was expected to be placed with the prime contractor around 2004.

The contract procurement of a further three Type 45s was placed with the Prime Contractor in February 2002. The ships are being built under sub-contract by BAE Systems Naval Ships and VT Shipbuilding.

On March 28, 2003 Defence Procurement Minister Lord Bach officially launched production of HMS Daring, first of the new Type 45 class of Anti-Air Warfare Destroyer, at BAE Systems' shipyard at Govan in Glasgow.

The Type 45 Destroyer was forecast to enter service in November 2007, almost five years later than the date forecast for its predecessor, the tri-national Common New Generation Frigate. The in-service date was re-defined from September 2007 to November 2007 to include two months Operational Sea Trials but the program for delivery of the ships had not changed.

The contract, with BAE Systems as the Prime Contractor, was for six ships with orders for further ships expected later in the decade. The ships will be built by BAE Systems on the Clyde and by Vosper Thornycroft at Portsmouth.

During the year 2006 significant progress in the manufacture of the first three ships. The first ship, HMS Daring, was launched February 2006 and during the course of the following year was fitted with most of her equipment ahead of her first sea trials in 2007. The second, HMS Dauntless, and third, HMS Diamond, ships were on schedule. Main manufacture of the fourth ship, HMS Dragon, started during 2006. On the PAAMS program, the Sampson Multi-Function Radar demonstrated its ability to track targets; a production standard Long Range Radar was in operation at the Type 45 shore integration facility; and the Aster missile development program is nearing completion following a number of successful firings during 2005.

On 23 January 2007 the Type 45 Destroyer HMS Dauntless was launched on the Clyde by Lady Burnell-Nugent, wife of the Commander In Chief of the Fleet.

On 14 August 2007 the Ministry Of Defence reported that the Royal Navy's newest and most sophisticated destroyer - to be called HMS Daring - had successfully completed demanding sea trials off the Scottish coast. Minister for the Armed Forces, Bob Ainsworth, said: "The Type 45 is an immensely powerful state of the art destroyer that will provide a vital layer of protection from missile attack for the fleet. Daring's success at sea - when I gather she exceeded her design speed of 29 knots - is an excellent start to the intensive trials phase that will now begin as we bring her world-leading missile defence system into full operation."

As of mid-2009 the Type 45 Daring class super-destroyer was two years behind schedule and 1.4 billion over budget. The year saw significant progress in the manufacture of the six ships. All ships were in production. The first ship, HMS Daring was commissioned into the Royal Navy in July 2009. A contract for up to seven years of Support for Type 45 was awarded to BAE Systems Surface Ships Ltd in September 2009. The fifth Type 45, Defender, was launched in October 2009. The second ship (Dauntless) was Accepted off Contract from the Prime Contractor in December 2009. Test firings of the Principal Anti-Air Missile System took place in May and November 2009. These test firings did not meet all of their planned trials objectives.

During the Department's 2010 Planning Round a decision was taken to amend the production program of Aster Missiles. This decision deferred production of some missiles, reducing costs in early years, but adding 46M to the overall cost of the Principal Anti-Air Missile System program. However, the effect of other Planning Round decisions and the benefits accrued through the good progress of the Ship program, mean that the result is no overall cost growth of the T45 program.

HMS Diamond is the third of Britain's fleet of six Type 45 destroyers. Launched on the Clyde by our sponsor, Lady Johns, in November 2007, the ship arrived in Portsmouth in the autumn of 2010 and was commissioned in the spring of 2011. She deployed in June 2012 on her maiden deployment to the Gulf and was the last RN ship home before Christmas. Her New Year begins with some well-earned rest and recuperation.

HMS Dragon is the fourth of the Royal Navy's six Type 45 destroyers and she was launched on 7 November 2008 by her sponsor, Mrs Susie Boissier. After successfully completing extensive trials, Dragon was formally commissioned on 20 April 2012. Only 11 months later, after a successful firing of a Sea Viper missile, BOST and a material readiness package she sailed for her maiden deployment to the Gulf region on 19 March 2013.

HMS Defender is the fifth of the Navys six state-of-the-art Type 45 destroyers Defender was built in Glasgow which is one of her two affiliated cities (the other is Exeter). After delivery to her home port of Portsmouth in July 2012 and acceptance into the Fleet in March 2013, she is now undergoing extensive sea trials and training in order to undertake operational duties anywhere in the world when tasked.

HMS Duncan, the final Type 45 destroyer, was the most complete at launch in October 2010 and will be the quickest from launch to delivery to her base port of Portsmouth. She entered service with the Royal Navy on 22 March 2013. HMS Duncan, the sixth and last of the Royal Navy's new-generation Type 45 destroyers, was formally commissioned into the fleet on 26 September 2013. Hundreds of guests, including families of the 190-strong ship's company, attended a 'christening' ceremony at Portsmouth Naval Base to mark the ship's transition into front line service. The event marks a significant milestone for the fleet of Portsmouth-based Type 45s the most powerful ships ever built for the Royal Navy. The first Type 45, HMS Daring, was commissioned in July 2009 and has been followed by her sister ships Dauntless, Diamond, Dragon, Defender and now Duncan.

It is clear that the under-testing of the engine was a key cause of the problems experienced by the Type 45s when they came into service. This is a serious failing of both the MoD and of the contractors. The MoD did not explain satisfactorily why there was no adequate clause in the contract with Rolls Royce specifying responsibility for repairs should the engines develop any further design faults because of the lack of testing time.

The Integrated Full Electric Propulsion (IFEP) system selected for the Type 45 Destroyers represented a significant advance in propulsion design, delivering significant benefits in terms of increased fuel efficiency and operational flexibility, savings in maintenance and personnel costs, and a lower environmental impact through its operational life. As the then Defence Secretary, the Rt Hon Geoff Hoon MP, acknowledged at the time, his selection of the WR21 in preference to GECs more mature LM2500 engine presented a greater degree of risk to the program.

The MOD has previously advised the Committee that the system was subjected to a development and endurance testing program totalling 8,000 hours and that this was judged by the MOD and industry to have mitigated the system integration and performance risks to a level commensurate with new-to-service equipment.

On the question of liability, the decision in July 2000 to proceed with the IFEP system was taken in the knowledge that a new design with new technology inevitably involved a degree of risk, particularly the MODs decision to adopt the WR21 Gas Turbine. It was judged however, that these risks would be outweighed by the systems long term performance benefits. As the issues now being addressed result from those earlier decisions liability for funding this work now rests with the MOD. Where industry had a demonstrable liability for performance they undertook design modifications at their expense. It is astonishing that the specification for the Type 45 did not include the requirement for the ships to operate at full capacityand for sustained periodsin hot regions such as the Gulf. The UKs enduring presence in the Gulf should have made it a key requirement for the engines. The fact that it was not was an inexcusable failing and one which must not be repeated in the Type 26 and GPFF programmes. Failure to guarantee this would put the personnel and ships of the Royal Navy in danger, with potentially dangerous consequences.







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